by Galderisi U, Jori FP, Giordano A
The general mechanisms that control the cell cycle in mammalian cells have been studied in depth and several proteins that are involved in the tight regulation of cell cycle progression have been identified. However, the analysis of which molecules participate in cell cycle exit of specific cell lineages is not exhaustive yet. Moreover, the strict relation between cell cycle exit and induction of differentiation has not been fully understood and seems to depend on the cell type. Several in vivo and in vitro studies have been performed in the last few years to address these issues in cells of the nervous system. In this review, we focus our attention on cyclin-cyclin-dependent kinase complexes, cyclin kinase inhibitors, genes of the retinoblastoma family, p53 and N-Myc, and we aim to summarize the latest evidence indicating their involvement in the control of the cell cycle and induction of differentiation in different cell types of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Studies on nervous system tumors and a possible contributory role in tumorigenesis of polyomavirus T antigen are reported to point out the critical contribution of some cell cycle regulators to normal neural and glial development.
on Journal of cellular physiology
by Jori FP, Galderisi U, Piegari E, Cipollaro M, Cascino A, Peluso G, Cotrufo R, Giordano A, Melone MA
Neural stem cells (NSCs) could be very useful for the "cell therapy" treatment of neurological disorders. For this reason basic studies aiming to well characterize the biology of NSCs are of great interest. We carried out a molecular and immunocytochemical analysis of EGF-responsive NSCs obtained from rat pups. After the initial growth of NSCs as floating neurospheres in EGF-containing medium, cells were plated on poly-L-ornithine-coated dishes either in the presence or absence of EGF. We followed cell differentiation and apoptosis for 21 days in vitro and analyzed the expression levels of some genes having a major role in these processes, such as pRB, pRB2/p130, p27, and p53. We observed that EGF impairs neuronal differentiation. Furthermore, in the absence of mitogens, apoptosis, which appeared to proceed through the "p53 network," was significantly lower than in the presence of EGF. The cyclin kinase inhibitor p27, while important for cell cycle exit, seemed dispensable for cell survival and differentiation.
on Journal of vascular research
by Forte A, Di Micco G, Galderisi U, De Feo M, Esposito F, Esposito S, Renzulli A, Berrino L, Cipollaro M, Agozzino L, Cotrufo M, Rossi F, Cascino A
The expression profiles of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and programmed death were investigated in carotids of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with a model of surgical injury that mimics events occurring during arterial grafts, endarterectomy and organ transplantation. The mRNA level of the c-myc, angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1), Rb/p105, Rb2/p130, Bcl-2 and Bax-alpha genes was assessed by a semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique at different times up to 48 h after injury, while the morphological changes were evaluated 30 days after injury. The proliferation marker c-myc increases almost immediately, peaks after 4 h and returns to basal levels after 24 h; the AT1 receptor mRNA reaches its maximal level 48 h after injury. The level of cell cycle exit markers Rb/p105 and Rb2/p130 gradually decreases after injury. The apoptosis marker Bcl-2/Bax-alpha ratio shows a significant reduction only 4 h after injury, resuming the initial value after 24 and 48 h. Morphological analysis reveals that surgical injury in SHR induces adventitial and medial constrictive remodeling changes rather than intima proliferation as in balloon angioplasty. Both molecular and histological data show substantial differences with respect to normotensive rats.
on Nucleic acids research
by Di Bernardo G, Del Gaudio S, Cammarota M, Galderisi U, Cascino A, Cipollaro M
Ancient DNA (aDNA) samples extracted from the bone remains of six equids buried by the Vesuvius eruption in 79 AD were investigated to test pre-amplification and enzymatic repair procedures designed to enhance the rescue of nuclear genes. The extracts, which proved all positive for Equidae mtDNA amplification, proved positive only four times out of 18 when tested for single-copy Equidae nuclear genes (epsilon globin, p53 and gamma interferon). Pre-amplification did not change the number of retrieved aDNA sequences but 10 times out of 14 enzymatic repair restored the amplifiability of the genes analysed, proving that repair increases the rate of successful rescue from 22 to alpha(lambda)mu(omicron)sigma(tau) 80%. These findings support the hypothesis that some of these cross-linked aDNA molecules, which are not completely separated when DNA is extracted under denaturing conditions, become homoduplex substrates for Pol I and/or T4 ligase action upon renaturation. aDNA authenticity is proved by the homology of the nucleotide sequences of loci tested to the corresponding modern Equidae sequences. Data also indicate that cross-linked homoduplex molecules selected by denaturation of the extract are repaired without any chimera formation. The general features of aDNA amplification with and without denaturation and enzymatic repair are discussed.
on The Biochemical journal
by Jori FP, Galderisi U, Piegari E, Peluso G, Cipollaro M, Cascino A, Giordano A, Melone MA
The activity of the RB2/p130 gene, which is a member of the retinoblastoma gene family, is cell-cycle-regulated and plays a key role in growth inhibition and differentiation. We used neuroblastoma cell lines as a model for studies on neural crest progenitor cell differentiation. We show that Rb2/p130 ectopic protein expression induces morphological and molecular modifications, promoting differentiation of intermediate (I) phenotype SK-N-BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells towards a neuroblastic (N) rather than a Schwann/glial/melanocytic (S) phenotype. These modifications are stable as they persist even after treatment with an S-phenotype inducer. Rb2/p130 ectopic expression also induces a more differentiated phenotype in N-type SH-SY-5Y cells. Further, this function appears to be independent of cell-cycle withdrawal. The data reported suggest that the Rb2/p130 protein is able to induce neuronal lineage specification and differentiation in neural crest stem and committed neuroblastoma cells, respectively. Thus, the Rb2/p130 protein seems to be required throughout the full neural maturation process.
on Expert opinion on emerging drugs
by Galderisi U, Cipollaro M, Cascino A
Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) are short stretches of DNA complementary to a target mRNA. The ODNs selectively hybridise to their complementary RNA by Watson-Crick base pairing rules. In theory, the use of antisense ODNs provides a method to specifically inhibit the intracellular expression of any disorder whose genetic aetiology is well known. For this reason, researchers thought that if antisense drugs proved to be so specific there would be no side effects. However, toxicity-related problems arose in initial animal studies of antisense drugs in the early 1990s and since then companies have been using these compounds cautiously. In order to be useful therapeutically, an ODN must (a) exhibit reasonable stability in the physiological environment, (b) be taken up and retained in adequate quantities by the target cells, (c) specifically bind target mRNA with high affinity, (d) have an acceptable therapeutic ratio, free of unwanted toxic and non-specific side effects and (e) be easily synthesised in sufficient quantities to allow clinical use. Most of these criteria have already been met by ODNs recently used in this way. This review describes certain therapeutic applications of antisense techniques currently under investigation in oncology, haematopathology and inflammatory diseases.
on Molecular and cellular neurosciences
by Galderisi U, Melone MA, Jori FP, Piegari E, Di Bernardo G, Cipollaro M, Cascino A, Peluso G, Claudio PP, Giordano A
There are many data on the activity of the RB gene in neural differentiation and apoptosis, but the role of pRb2/p130 in neuronal and glial maturation has been far less investigated. To elucidate the role of pRb2/p130 in astrocyte development we overexpressed this protein in astrocytoma and normal astrocyte cultures by adenoviral-mediated gene transfer. In astrocytoma cells, p130/RB2 overexpression resulted in a significant reduction of cell growth and in an increased G(0)/G(1) cell population. We did not observe any induction of programmed cell death as determined by TUNEL reaction. Interestingly, pRb2/p130 overexpression induced astrocyte differentiation. Astrocyte cell cycle arrest and differentiation seemed to proceed through a way distinct from the p53 pathway.
on Journal of cellular physiology
by Forte A, Di Micco G, Galderisi U, Guarino FM, Cipollaro M, De Feo M, Gregorio R, Bianco MR, Vollono C, Esposito F, Berrino L, Angelini F, Renzulli A, Cotrufo M, Rossi F, Cascino A
A new model of surgical injury for the induction and development of stenosis in common rat carotids is described. This model differs from balloon angioplasty or vein graft systems currently applied on animals to develop stenosis, since it involves the entire vessel wall layers and mimics the injury occurring during arterial grafts, endarterectomy or organ transplantation. At different times following arterial damage, the pattern of expression of genes already known to be involved in the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (c-myc, Angiotensin II receptor 1, Bcl-2 and Bax alpha), as well as of Rb and Rb2 genes, whose pattern of expression after arterial injury has not yet been reported, was analyzed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. Histological and histochemical analysis on carotid sections shows the morphological changes which occurred 30 days after surgical injury in the vessel wall. Molecular and histological data demonstrate that this model of surgical injury induces neointimal proliferation in about 30% of rats. In about 70% of the remaining rats, it induces the processes responsible for negative remodelling, namely the significant accumulation of extracellular matrix and fibers and disorganization of arterial tunics. This model is therefore available for further studies on the expression of genes involved in the arterial stenotic process, as well as for testing drugs aimed at limiting this recurrent pathophysiological phenomenon.
on Journal of cellular physiology
by Melone MA, Peluso G, Galderisi U, Petillo O, Cotrufo R
In DMD the progressive loss of muscle ability and concomitant increasing fibrosis might originate from, besides other causes, the fibroblast paracrine inhibition of satellite cell "growth." In this study we report that in myoblast/fibroblast coculture experiments, the presence of DMD fibroblasts negatively interfered with DMD myoblast growth to an extent directly proportional to the percentage of DMD fibroblasts present in the mixed-cell cultures. Moreover, the observation that media conditioned with proliferating DMD fibroblasts inhibited the growth of DMD myoblasts more seriously than did control fibroblast-conditioned media suggested a paracrine effect by diffusible factors. IGF-binding proteins could act as such diffusible factors; in fact, IGFBP-5 transcript increased threefold in DMD fibroblasts proliferating in DMD muscle extracts, whereas IGFBP-3 mRNA decreased. In addition, high levels of IGFBP-5 protein were detected in DMD fibroblast-conditioned media. In neutralizing IGFBP-5 in DMD fibroblast-conditioned media by means of specific antibodies, or inhibiting IGFBP-5 gene expression in DMD fibroblasts by means of oligo antisense, the fibroblast-conditioned media lost inhibitory power over DMD myoblast proliferation.
on Life sciences
by Piegari E, Galderisi U, Berrino L, Di Bernardo G, Cipollaro M, Esposito F, Rossi F, Cascino A
Partial phosphorothioate (PS) antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) targeted against rat AT1 receptor mRNA have been used to control blood pressure in normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Molecules were injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., right lateral ventricle) in freely moving animals. The antisense ODN lowered the mean arterial pressure (MAP) 24 hours (-43 mmHg+/-10) and 48 hours (-30 mmHg+/-13) after injection, while the control ODN molecule had no significant effects. The observed decrease of blood pressure was due to a specific inhibition of AT1 receptor gene expression, since the level of its mRNA, monitored by reverse transcription (RT)- polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was significantly reduced by antisense molecule (-40%), compared to sense one. In normotensive rats no effect on MAP have been observed, while AT1 receptor gene expression is reduced (-40%) by antisense treatment. It is known that SHRs have an enhanced basal activity of the central renin-angiotensin system that induces an increase in central sympathetic outflow. Instead in WKY rats the central sympathetic outflow is not conditioned by the enhanced activity of brain renin-angiotensin system. Therefore in normotensive rats although partial PS ODN reduces the AT1 mRNA level this will not result in a modification of the sympathetic outflow and no change in MAP level would be observed.