on Cellular signalling
by Incoronato M, D'Alessio A, Paladino S, Zurzolo C, Carlomagno MS, Cerchia L, de Franciscis V
The Shp-2 and Shp-1 non-transmembrane tyrosine phosphatases display different and even opposing effects on downstream signaling events initiated by Ret activation. By using rat pheochromocytoma-derived PC12 cells, here we studied the interactions of Shp-2 and Shp-1 with two activated mutants of Ret receptor, Ret(C634Y) and Ret(M918T). Each of these mutated receptors causes inheritance of distinct cancer syndromes, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and type 2B, respectively. We show that: (i) both Shp-1 and Shp-2 are associated to a multiprotein complex that includes Ret mutants; (ii) the Shp-1-Ret complexes are distinct from Shp-2-Ret complexes, and these complexes are differently distributed inside and outside lipid rafts; (iii) constitutively activated Ret proteins neither directly bind to nor are substrates of these phosphatases. Our results well support the evidence that Ret complexes within and outside rafts mediate distinct biological functions, and indicate that the presence of either Shps participates to determine such functions.
on Traffic (Copenhagen, Denmark)
by Sarnataro D, Paladino S, Campana V, Grassi J, Nitsch L, Zurzolo C
PrP(C) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed in neurons as well as in the cells of several peripheral tissues. Although the normal function of PrP(C) remains unknown, a conformational isoform called PrP(Sc) (scrapie) has been proposed to be the infectious agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in animals and humans. Where and how the PrP(C) to PrP(Sc) conversion occurs in the cells is not yet known. Therefore, dissecting the intracellular trafficking of the wild-type prion protein, as well as of the scrapie isoform, can be of major relevance to the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this report we have analyzed the exocytic pathway of transfected mouse PrP(C) in thyroid and kidney polarized epithelial cells. In contrast to the majority of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, we found that PrP(C) is localized mainly on the basolateral domain of the plasma membrane of both cell lines. This is reminiscent of the predominant somatodendritic localization found in neurons. However, similarly to apical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-proteins, PrP(C) associates with detergent-resistant microdomains, which have been suggested to have a role in apical sorting of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-proteins, as well as in the conversion process of PrP(C) to PrP(Sc). In order to discriminate whether detergent-resistant microdomains have a direct role in PrP(Sc) conversion, or whether they are involved in the transport of the protein to the site of its conversion, we have examined the effect of disruption of detergent-resistant microdomain association on PrP(C) intracellular traffic. Consistent with the unusual basolateral localization of this glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked protein, our data exclude a classical role for detergent-resistant microdomains in the post-trans-Golgi network sorting and transport of PrP(C) to the plasma membrane.
by Lipardi C, Ruggiano G, Perrone L, Paladino S, Monlauzeur L, Nitsch L, Le Bivic A, Zurzolo C
Trafficking of receptors is of crucial importance for the physiology of most exocrine and endocrine organs. It is not known yet if the same mechanisms are used for sorting in the exocytic and endocytic pathways in the different epithelial tissues. In this work, we have used a deletion mutant of the human neurotrophin receptor p75(hNTR) that is normally localized on the apical membrane when expressed in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. This internal 57-amino acid deletion of the cytoplasmic tail leads to a relocation of the protein from the apical to the basolateral membrane and to rapid and efficient endocytosis. These events are mediated by a signal localized within 9 amino acids of the mutated cytoplasmic tail that is strictly dependent on a tyrosine residue (Tyr-308). We have analyzed the basolateral sorting efficiency and endocytic capacity of this signal in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells, in which basolateral and endocytic determinants have not yet been identified. We found that this targeting signal can mediate efficient transport to the basolateral membrane also in FRT cells with similar tyrosine dependence as in MDCK cells. In contrast to MDCK cells, this Tyr-based signal was not able to mediate coated pits localization and endocytosis in FRT cells. These data represent the first characterization of basolateral/endocytic signals in thyroid epithelial cells. Furthermore, our results indicate that requirements for tyrosine-dependent basolateral sorting signals are conserved among cell lines from different tissues but that the recognition of the colinear endocytic signal is tissue specific.
on International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM
by Paladino S, Sarnataro D, Zurzolo C
Detergent-insoluble microdomains or rafts play a crucial role in many cellular functions: membrane traffic, cell signalling and human diseases. In this work we investigate the role of rafts in the sorting of GPI-anchored proteins in polarized epithelial cells. In contrast to MDCK cells, the majority of endogenous GPI-anchored proteins are sorted to the basolateral surface of Fischer rat thyroid cells (Zurzolo et al., J. Cell Biol. 121, 1031-1039, 1993). We analyzed a set of transfected GPI proteins in order to understand the role of the GPI anchor and of association with rafts for apical sorting. We found that the GPI moiety is necessary but not sufficient for apical sorting of GPI proteins and that the ectodomain has a major role. We propose a new model in which the stabilization of proteins into rafts, probably mediated by interactions between protein ectodomains and a putative receptor, plays a crucial role in apical sorting.
on The Journal of cell biology
by Lipardi C, Mora R, Colomer V, Paladino S, Nitsch L, Rodriguez-Boulan E, Zurzolo C
Most epithelial cells sort glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins to the apical surface. The "raft" hypothesis, based on data mainly obtained in the prototype cell line MDCK, postulates that apical sorting depends on the incorporation of apical proteins into cholesterol/glycosphingolipid (GSL) rafts, rich in the cholesterol binding protein caveolin/VIP21, in the Golgi apparatus. Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells constitute an ideal model to test this hypothesis, since they missort both endogenous and transfected GPI-anchored proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane and fail to incorporate them into cholesterol/glycosphingolipid clusters. Because FRT cells lack caveolin, a major component of the caveolar coat that has been proposed to have a role in apical sorting of GPI-anchored proteins (Zurzolo, C., W. Van't Hoff, G. van Meer, and E. Rodriguez-Boulan. 1994. EMBO [Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.] J. 13:42-53.), we carried out experiments to determine whether the lack of caveolin accounted for the sorting/clustering defect of GPI-anchored proteins. We report here that FRT cells lack morphological caveolae, but, upon stable transfection of the caveolin1 gene (cav1), form typical flask-shaped caveolae. However, cav1 expression did not redistribute GPI-anchored proteins to the apical surface, nor promote their inclusion into cholesterol/GSL rafts. Our results demonstrate that the absence of caveolin1 and morphologically identifiable caveolae cannot explain the inability of FRT cells to sort GPI-anchored proteins to the apical domain. Thus, FRT cells may lack additional factors required for apical sorting or for the clustering with GSLs of GPI-anchored proteins, or express factors that inhibit these events. Alternatively, cav1 and caveolae may not be directly involved in these processes.