Luigi Trojano

Professor of Neuropsychology

Name Luigi
Surname Trojano
Institution Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
E-Mail luigi.trojano@unicampania.it
Address Department of Psychology, University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, Italy

Member PUBLICATIONS

  • Parkinson's disease management and impulse control disorders: current state and future perspectives.

    Publication Date: 31/05/2019 on Expert review of neurotherapeutics
    by Vitale C, Amboni M, Erro R, Picillo M, Pellecchia MT, Barone P, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2019.1620603

    : Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are a group of impulsive behaviors most often associated, but not limited to, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), particularly the use of dopamine agonists (DA). ICDs can impair activities of daily living and have a strong negative impact on quality of life of patients and their families. : This review mainly focusses on the most common ICDs in the context of currently accepted management strategies for PD and emphasizes areas of controversy in need of further research. The authors further describe the concept of dopamine agonist withdrawal (DAWS) syndrome and its implication for the treatment of ICDs, the role of recently available antiparkinsonian drugs and routes of delivery, and non-pharmacological treatments. : When ICDs develop, proper management mainly consists of reducing, discontinuing or switching dopaminergic agents, especially of DA. In these scenarios, patients should be closely followed up as their motor condition may deteriorate along with occurrence of DAWS. Assessment of the presence and intensity of ICDs should be carried throughout the course of the disease and not only when a particular treatment is started or when the dosage is increased, since their occurrence is not linearly related to DRT alone.

  • Fatigue in Parkinson's disease: Italian validation of the Parkinson Fatigue Scale and the Fatigue Severity Scale using a Rasch analysis approach.

    Publication Date: 22/05/2019 on Parkinsonism & related disorders
    by Siciliano M, Chiorri C, De Micco R, Russo A, Tedeschi G, Trojano L, Tessitore A
    DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.05.028

    The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS-9) and the Parkinson Fatigue Scale (PFS-16) are commonly used for assessing fatigue in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we validated the Italian version of these scales, assessed their psychometric properties by Rasch analysis, and computed their optimal cut-off scores using clinical diagnosis of PD-related fatigue as the gold standard.

  • Assessing Anxiety and its correlates in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Publication Date: 21/03/2019 on Muscle & nerve
    by Siciliano M, Trojano L, Trojsi F, Monsurrò MR, Tedeschi G, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1002/mus.26475

    We evaluated: i) psychometric properties of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Form Y (STAI Form Y); ii) clinical correlates of state and trait anxiety; iii) associations of anxiety with Quality of Life (QoL) dimensions.

  • Does cognitive reserve play any role in multiple sclerosis? A meta-analytic study.

    Publication Date: 14/02/2019 on Multiple sclerosis and related disorders
    by Santangelo G, Altieri M, Gallo A, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.02.017

    Inconsistent evidence is available about the possibility that cognitive reserve (CR) moderates the impact of disease progression, evaluated by MRI biomarkers (lesion load, white matter or gray matter volumes) or clinical proxies of physical disability (i.e. the Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS) on cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A meta-analytic study with a meta-regression approach was performed to investigate the possible role of CR as moderator of the impact of brain damage and physical disability on cognition.

  • Apathy as a herald of cognitive changes in multiple sclerosis: A 2-year follow-up study.

    Publication Date: 07/02/2019 on Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)
    by Raimo S, Spitaleri D, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1177/1352458519828296

    Behavioral symptoms, such as apathy and depression, are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but their relationship with cognitive and clinical characteristics often remains underinvestigated and not monitored over time.

  • Cognitive reserve and neuropsychological performance in multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Publication Date: 31/01/2019 on Neuropsychology
    by Santangelo G, Altieri M, Enzinger C, Gallo A, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1037/neu0000520

    Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its relationship with cognitive reserve (CR) has been investigated in several studies with conflicting results. In this meta-analysis, we here sought to determine the relationship between CR and cognition in MS patients and to ascertain whether demographic or clinical variables could moderate the above-mentioned relationship.

  • Comparison of alternate and original forms of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): an Italian normative study.

    Publication Date: 14/01/2019 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Siciliano M, Chiorri C, Passaniti C, Sant'Elia V, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-019-3700-7

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test widely used in clinical practice and suited for detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Alternate forms of the MoCA were developed to avoid "learning effect" in serial assessments, and the present study aimed at investigating inter-form parallelism and at providing normative values for the Italian versions of MoCAs 2 and 3.

  • Modulating interoception by insula stimulation: A double-blinded tDCS study.

    Publication Date: 17/12/2018 on Neuroscience letters
    by Sagliano L, Magliacano A, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Trojano L, Grossi D
    DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.12.022

    Interoception consists in the perception and processing of internal body signals, such as heartbeat. Previous neuroimaging studies revealed that attention to heartbeat activated bilateral insula and premotor regions. In the present double-blind study, we aimed at testing the role of insula in interoception by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) interfering with its activity. Sixteen healthy participants responded to a questionnaire to evaluate the tendency to be internally focused and performed a heartbeat counting task before and after tDCS in three sessions (left insula stimulation, right insula stimulation, sham stimulation). Real and reported heartbeat were recorded and used to calculate the accuracy scores. A significant interaction between stimulation condition and time (pre- and post-stimulation) was found due to a significant improvement of the interoceptive accuracy in the sham condition only. Our results demonstrated that stimulation over the insula reduced the possibility to improve the precision with which individuals detect internal signals.

  • Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study.

    Publication Date: 07/12/2018 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Siciliano M, Chiorri C, Battini V, Sant'Elia V, Altieri M, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-018-3673-y

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range.

  • Bi-cephalic parietal and cerebellar direct current stimulation interferes with early error correction in prism adaptation: Toward a complex view of the neural mechanisms underlying visuomotor control.

    Publication Date: 01/12/2018 on Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior
    by Panico F, Sagliano L, Grossi D, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2018.09.020

    Prism Adaptation (PA) represents a valid tool to assess short-term visuomotor plasticity. Two adaptive processes are involved during PA: recalibration, contributing to early error compensation, and spatial realignment, contributing to after-effect development. Classical models on PA posit that adaptive mechanisms underlying PA rely on segregated regions in the brain. Indeed, they ascribe recalibration to the activity of the Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) and spatial realignment to the activity of the Cerebellum. The present experiment challenges the idea of a clear-cut separation of the role of the brain areas involved in PA, proposing an interpretation in terms of interrelated brain regions. To this purpose we interfered with the activity of the PPC and the Cerebellum by means of complementary protocols of stimulation. Bi-cephalic transcranial Direct Current Stimulation was delivered simultaneously on the PPC and the Cerebellum during PA in two groups of participants receiving real stimulation with opposite polarities (anode on PPC and cathode on Cerebellum or vice-versa) and in a control group (Sham stimulation). Differences in mean errors between groups were analyzed. Results show that the two groups of real stimulation exhibited larger displacements in early error compensation compared to the Sham Group, but they did not differ from each other. No group difference was found in late error compensation and after-effect. In conclusion, the present findings provide the first direct evidence that a brain circuit connecting the PPC and the Cerebellum is involved in early stages of visuomotor adaptation, and pave the way for updating classical models of PA.