Luigi Trojano

Professor of Neuropsychology

Name Luigi
Surname Trojano
Institution Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
E-Mail luigi.trojano@unicampania.it
Address Department of Psychology, University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, Italy

Member PUBLICATIONS

  • Does cognitive reserve play any role in multiple sclerosis? A meta-analytic study.

    Publication Date: 14/02/2019 on Multiple sclerosis and related disorders
    by Santangelo G, Altieri M, Gallo A, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.02.017

    Inconsistent evidence is available about the possibility that cognitive reserve (CR) moderates the impact of disease progression, evaluated by MRI biomarkers (lesion load, white matter or gray matter volumes) or clinical proxies of physical disability (i.e. the Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS) on cognition in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). A meta-analytic study with a meta-regression approach was performed to investigate the possible role of CR as moderator of the impact of brain damage and physical disability on cognition.

  • Apathy as a herald of cognitive changes in multiple sclerosis: A 2-year follow-up study.

    Publication Date: 07/02/2019 on Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England)
    by Raimo S, Spitaleri D, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1177/1352458519828296

    Behavioral symptoms, such as apathy and depression, are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) but their relationship with cognitive and clinical characteristics often remains underinvestigated and not monitored over time.

  • Cognitive reserve and neuropsychological performance in multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis.

    Publication Date: 31/01/2019 on Neuropsychology
    by Santangelo G, Altieri M, Enzinger C, Gallo A, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1037/neu0000520

    Cognitive dysfunction is frequent in multiple sclerosis (MS), and its relationship with cognitive reserve (CR) has been investigated in several studies with conflicting results. In this meta-analysis, we here sought to determine the relationship between CR and cognition in MS patients and to ascertain whether demographic or clinical variables could moderate the above-mentioned relationship.

  • Comparison of alternate and original forms of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA): an Italian normative study.

    Publication Date: 14/01/2019 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Siciliano M, Chiorri C, Passaniti C, Sant'Elia V, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-019-3700-7

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening test widely used in clinical practice and suited for detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Alternate forms of the MoCA were developed to avoid "learning effect" in serial assessments, and the present study aimed at investigating inter-form parallelism and at providing normative values for the Italian versions of MoCAs 2 and 3.

  • Modulating interoception by insula stimulation: A double-blinded tDCS study.

    Publication Date: 17/12/2018 on Neuroscience letters
    by Sagliano L, Magliacano A, Parazzini M, Fiocchi S, Trojano L, Grossi D
    DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2018.12.022

    Interoception consists in the perception and processing of internal body signals, such as heartbeat. Previous neuroimaging studies revealed that attention to heartbeat activated bilateral insula and premotor regions. In the present double-blind study, we aimed at testing the role of insula in interoception by means of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) interfering with its activity. Sixteen healthy participants responded to a questionnaire to evaluate the tendency to be internally focused and performed a heartbeat counting task before and after tDCS in three sessions (left insula stimulation, right insula stimulation, sham stimulation). Real and reported heartbeat were recorded and used to calculate the accuracy scores. A significant interaction between stimulation condition and time (pre- and post-stimulation) was found due to a significant improvement of the interoceptive accuracy in the sham condition only. Our results demonstrated that stimulation over the insula reduced the possibility to improve the precision with which individuals detect internal signals.

  • Regression-based normative data and equivalent scores for Trail Making Test (TMT): an updated Italian normative study.

    Publication Date: 07/12/2018 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Siciliano M, Chiorri C, Battini V, Sant'Elia V, Altieri M, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-018-3673-y

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used to assess psychomotor speed and attentional set-shifting. Since the regression-based norms and equivalent scores (ESs) for the TMT Italian version trace back to more than 20 years ago, we aimed at providing updated normative data for basic (Part A and Part B) and derived (Score B-A and Score B/A) TMT scores collected in a larger sample with an extended age range.

  • Bi-cephalic parietal and cerebellar direct current stimulation interferes with early error correction in prism adaptation: Toward a complex view of the neural mechanisms underlying visuomotor control.

    Publication Date: 01/12/2018 on Cortex; a journal devoted to the study of the nervous system and behavior
    by Panico F, Sagliano L, Grossi D, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2018.09.020

    Prism Adaptation (PA) represents a valid tool to assess short-term visuomotor plasticity. Two adaptive processes are involved during PA: recalibration, contributing to early error compensation, and spatial realignment, contributing to after-effect development. Classical models on PA posit that adaptive mechanisms underlying PA rely on segregated regions in the brain. Indeed, they ascribe recalibration to the activity of the Posterior Parietal Cortex (PPC) and spatial realignment to the activity of the Cerebellum. The present experiment challenges the idea of a clear-cut separation of the role of the brain areas involved in PA, proposing an interpretation in terms of interrelated brain regions. To this purpose we interfered with the activity of the PPC and the Cerebellum by means of complementary protocols of stimulation. Bi-cephalic transcranial Direct Current Stimulation was delivered simultaneously on the PPC and the Cerebellum during PA in two groups of participants receiving real stimulation with opposite polarities (anode on PPC and cathode on Cerebellum or vice-versa) and in a control group (Sham stimulation). Differences in mean errors between groups were analyzed. Results show that the two groups of real stimulation exhibited larger displacements in early error compensation compared to the Sham Group, but they did not differ from each other. No group difference was found in late error compensation and after-effect. In conclusion, the present findings provide the first direct evidence that a brain circuit connecting the PPC and the Cerebellum is involved in early stages of visuomotor adaptation, and pave the way for updating classical models of PA.

  • Left inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices mediate the effect of action observation on semantic processing of objects: evidence from rTMS.

    Publication Date: 08/11/2018 on Psychological research
    by De Bellis F, Magliacano A, Sagliano L, Conson M, Grossi D, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1007/s00426-018-1117-1

    Previous studies showed that motor information related to tool use (i.e., functional actions) could affect processing of objects semantic properties, whereas motor information related to grasping or moving tool (i.e., structural actions) cannot. However, little is known about the neural correlates mediating such interaction between motor and semantic information. Here, healthy participants performed a semantic judgment task requiring identification of semantic relations among objects, after observing a functional, a structural or a pointing action prime. In a within-subject design, during prime presentation the participants underwent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG), the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) or received sham stimulation. Results showed that in the sham condition observing functional actions (vs. structural and pointing actions) favoured processing of semantic relations based on function similarity (i.e., taxonomic relations), but not of relations based on co-occurrence within an event schema (i.e., thematic relations). Moreover, stimulation of both left SMG and pMTG abolished the effect of functional action primes worsening subsequent judgment about taxonomic relations, and this effect was greater after pMTG stimulation. rTMS did not affect processing of thematic semantic relations. We suggest that action observation triggers activation of functional motor information within left inferior parietal cortex, and that integration between functional motor and conceptual information in left temporal cortex could impact high-level semantic processing of tools.

  • Selegiline in Patients With Disorder of Consciousness: An Open Pilot Study.

    Publication Date: 01/11/2018 on The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
    by Masotta O, Trojano L, Loreto V, Moretta P, Estraneo A
    DOI: 10.1017/cjn.2018.315

    This open study investigated the clinical effects of 10-week selegiline administration in six patients in vegetative state and in four patients in a minimally conscious state, at least 6 months after onset. Clinical outcome was assessed by Coma Recovery Scale-Revised once a week during selegiline administration and 1 month later. Three patients stopped treatment because of possible side effects. After treatment and at 1 month of follow-up, four patients showed improvements in clinical diagnosis, and three patients showed an increase in arousal level only. Selegiline might represent a relatively safe option to enhance arousal and promote recovery in brain-injured patients with disorders of consciousness.

  • "Pure apathy" and cognitive dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease: A meta-analytic study.

    Publication Date: 01/11/2018 on Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews
    by D'Iorio A, Maggi G, Vitale C, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.08.004

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is characterized by motor and non-motor symptoms such as cognitive deficit and behavioural disturbances. Apathy seems to be related to cognitive impairment, but some studies failed to confirm the relationship due to different methodological procedures across studies. A meta-analysis on 8 studies was performed to explore the cognitive correlates of apathy without depression and dementia (pure apathy). Global cognitive function, memory, executive functions, processing speed/attention/working memory, visuospatial abilities and language were the outcomes. The effect size of the relationship between "pure apathy" and reduced global cognitive functioning, executive functions, processing speed/attention/working memory, visuospatial functions, long-term verbal memory was moderate, whereas apathy was strongly associated with inhibition dysfunctioning. Our results revealed a strong association between "pure apathy" and cognitive dysfunctions, particularly deficit of memory and executive functions related to altered prefronto-subcortical circuitries.