Luigi Trojano

Professor of Neuropsychology

Name Luigi
Surname Trojano
Institution Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
Address Department of Psychology, University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, Italy


  • Cognitive and behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease: an update. II: behavioral disorders.

    Publication Date: 01/01/2018 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Trojano L, Papagno C
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-017-3155-7

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can experience several behavioral symptoms, such as apathy, agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movements, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, and REM sleep behavioral disorders. Psychoses and hallucinations, depression and anxiety disorders, and difficulties in recognizing and experiencing emotions also impair behavior and can cause severe psychosocial problems in patients with PD. Symptoms can be present since early stages of the disease, sometimes even before the appearance of classical motor symptoms, likely in relation to dopamine depletion in basal ganglia and/or to dysfunctions of other neurotrasmitter systems, and others can develop later, in some cases in relation to dopaminergic treatment. In this paper, we review recent literature, with particular attention to the last 5 years, on the main behavioral and emotional disturbances described in PD patients as well as the hypothesized neurofunctional substrate of such impairments. Finally, we provide some suggestions on the most suitable instruments to check and assess PD-associated behavioral defects over time.

  • The Closing-In Phenomenon in an Ecological Walking Task.

    Publication Date: 04/12/2017 on Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS
    by De Lucia N, Grossi D, Milan G, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1017/S1355617717001229

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may show the Closing-in (CI), a tendency to reproduce figures close to or superimposed on the model. AD patients with CI might manifest reduced functional independence compared to AD patients without CI, but no study directly assessed if CI can hamper common daily living activities. To address this issue here we investigated whether AD patients with CI veer their walking trajectory toward irrelevant objects more often than AD patients without CI.

  • Motor, behavioural, and cognitive correlates of fatigue in early, de novo Parkinson disease patients.

    Publication Date: 01/12/2017 on Parkinsonism & related disorders
    by Siciliano M, Trojano L, De Micco R, De Mase A, Garramone F, Russo A, Tedeschi G, Tessitore A
    DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.10.004

    Fatigue is one of the most common and disabling non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). The objective of this study was to determine prevalence and motor, behavioural, and cognitive correlates of distressing fatigue in early, de novo PD patients.

  • Coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Publication Date: 01/08/2017 on Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration
    by Siciliano M, Santangelo G, Trojsi F, Di Somma C, Patrone M, Femiano C, Monsurrò MR, Trojano L, Tedeschi G
    DOI: 10.1080/21678421.2017.1285316

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) causes distress in caregivers. The present study aims to examine the association between coping strategies and psychological distress in caregivers of ALS patients.

  • The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

    Publication Date: 30/06/2017 on Behavioural brain research
    by Trojano L, Caccavale M, De Bellis F, Crisci C
    DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2017.04.031

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula).

  • Cognitive impairment is associated with Hoehn and Yahr stages in early, de novo Parkinson disease patients.

    Publication Date: 25/05/2017 on Parkinsonism & related disorders
    by Siciliano M, De Micco R, Trojano L, De Stefano M, Baiano C, Passaniti C, De Mase A, Russo A, Tedeschi G, Tessitore A
    DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2017.05.020

    The relationship between motor impairment and cognitive deterioration has long been described in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of the study was to compare cognitive performance of de novo PD patients in relation to the motor impairment severity according to Hoehn and Yahr (HY) stages.

  • Whose hand is this? Differential responses of right and left extrastriate body areas to visual images of self and others' hands.

    Publication Date: 23/05/2017 on Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience
    by De Bellis F, Trojano L, Errico D, Grossi D, Conson M
    DOI: 10.3758/s13415-017-0514-z

    The extrastriate body area (EBA) is involved in perception of human bodies and nonfacial body parts, but its role in representing body identity is not clear. Here, we used on-line high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to test the role of EBA in self-other distinction. In Experiments 1 and 2 we compared rTMS of right EBA with stimulation of left ventral premotor cortex (vPM), whereas in Experiment 3 we compared stimulation of right and left EBA. RTMS was applied during a hand laterality task in which self or others' hand images were presented in first- versus third-person view (Experiments 1 and 3), or while participants had to explicitly recognize their own hands (Experiment 2) presented in first- versus third-person view. Experiment 1 showed that right EBA stimulation selectively speeded judgments on others' hands, whereas no effect of left vPM stimulation was found. Experiment 2 did not reveal any effect of rTMS. Experiment 3 confirmed faster responses on others' hands while stimulating right EBA and also showed an advantage when judging self with respect to others' hands during stimulation of left EBA. These results would demonstrate that EBA responds to morphological features of human body contributing to identity processing.

  • Family caregivers' opinions about interaction with the environment in consciousness disorders.

    Publication Date: 01/05/2017 on Rehabilitation psychology
    by Moretta P, Trojano L, Masotta O, Cardinale V, Loreto V, Estraneo A
    DOI: 10.1037/rep0000144

    To assess family caregivers' opinions about level of interaction with the environment in their relatives with disorders of consciousness (DOCs) and to explore psychological features of caregivers whose opinions diverge from clinicians' diagnosis.

  • Apathy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from Dimensional Apathy Scale.

    Publication Date: 21/04/2017 on Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration
    by Santangelo G, Siciliano M, Trojano L, Femiano C, Monsurrò MR, Tedeschi G, Trojsi F
    DOI: 10.1080/21678421.2017.1313865

    Apathy is associated with cognitive decline and worse survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS); an accurate evaluation of this aspect is relevant in clinical settings. The aims of this study are to evaluate the prevalence of apathy in a large ALS sample, using published diagnostic criteria, and to explore the psychometric properties, the sensitivity and the specificity of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) as a screening tool for apathy.

  • Psychological distress is associated with altered cognitive functioning in family caregivers of patients with disorders of consciousness.

    Publication Date: 17/04/2017 on Brain injury
    by Moretta P, Masotta O, Crispino E, Castronovo G, Ruvolo S, Montalbano C, Loreto V, Trojano L, Estraneo A
    DOI: 10.1080/02699052.2017.1290278

    To analyse the possible presence of reduced cognitive efficiency in family caregivers of patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DOC).