Luigi Trojano

Professor of Neuropsychology

Name Luigi
Surname Trojano
Institution Università degli Studi della Campania Luigi Vanvitelli
Address Department of Psychology, University of Campania 'Luigi Vanvitelli', Viale Ellittico 31, 81100 Caserta, Italy


  • Body Constraints on Motor Simulation in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Publication Date: 01/03/2016 on Journal of autism and developmental disorders
    by Conson M, Hamilton A, De Bellis F, Errico D, Improta I, Mazzarella E, Trojano L, Frolli A
    DOI: 10.1007/s10803-015-2652-x

    Developmental data suggested that mental simulation skills become progressively dissociated from overt motor activity across development. Thus, efficient simulation is rather independent from current sensorimotor information. Here, we tested the impact of bodily (sensorimotor) information on simulation skills of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Typically-developing (TD) and ASD participants judged laterality of hand images while keeping one arm flexed on chest or while holding both arms extended. Both groups were able to mentally simulate actions, but this ability was constrained by body posture more in ASD than in TD adolescents. The strong impact of actual body information on motor simulation implies that simulative skills are not fully effective in ASD individuals.

  • The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    Publication Date: 01/03/2016 on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
    by Siciliano M, Raimo S, Tufano D, Basile G, Grossi D, Santangelo F, Trojano L, Santangelo G
    DOI: 10.1007/s10072-015-2410-z

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  • Rouleau version of the Clock Drawing Test: age- and education-adjusted normative data from a wide Italian sample.

    Publication Date: 01/01/2016 on The Clinical neuropsychologist
    by Siciliano M, Santangelo G, D'Iorio A, Basile G, Piscopo F, Grossi D, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1080/13854046.2016.1241893

    The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is widely used as a screening tool for discriminating cognitively normal individuals from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for a 10-point quantitative scoring system proposed by Rouleau and colleagues (1992), including CDT total score and subscales score assessing representation of clock face (RC), layout of numbers (LN), and position of hands (PH), in a large sample of Italian healthy individuals.

  • Observing functional actions affects semantic processing of tools: evidence of a motor-to-semantic priming.

    Publication Date: 01/01/2016 on Experimental brain research
    by De Bellis F, Ferrara A, Errico D, Panico F, Sagliano L, Conson M, Trojano L
    DOI: 10.1007/s00221-015-4432-4

    Recent evidence shows that activation of motor information can favor identification of related tools, thus suggesting a strict link between motor and conceptual knowledge in cognitive representation of tools. However, the involvement of motor information in further semantic processing has not been elucidated. In three experiments, we aimed to ascertain whether motor information provided by observation of actions could affect processing of conceptual knowledge about tools. In Experiment 1, healthy participants judged whether pairs of tools evoking different functional handgrips had the same function. In Experiment 2 participants judged whether tools were paired with appropriate recipients. Finally, in Experiment 3 we again required functional judgments as in Experiment 1, but also included in the set of stimuli pairs of objects having different function and similar functional handgrips. In all experiments, pictures displaying either functional grasping (aimed to use tools) or structural grasping (just aimed to move tools independently from their use) were presented before each stimulus pair. The results demonstrated that, in comparison with structural grasping, observing functional grasping facilitates judgments about tools' function when objects did not imply the same functional manipulation (Experiment 1), whereas worsened such judgments when objects shared functional grasp (Experiment 3). Instead, action observation did not affect judgments concerning tool-recipient associations (Experiment 2). Our findings support a task-dependent influence of motor information on high-order conceptual tasks and provide further insights into how motor and conceptual processing about tools can interact.

  • Cerebellar hypometabolism with normal structural findings in Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis. A case report.

    Publication Date: 01/12/2015 on Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
    by Ragno M, Di Marzio F, Fuccio C, Pianese L, Cozzolino V, Carboni T, Cinti A, D'Andreamatteo G, Trojano L, Mignarri A, Gallus GN, Dotti MT
    DOI: 10.1016/j.clineuro.2015.10.020
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease: A longitudinal prospective study.

    Publication Date: 01/10/2015 on Parkinsonism & related disorders
    by Santangelo G, Vitale C, Picillo M, Moccia M, Cuoco S, Longo K, Pezzella D, di Grazia A, Erro R, Pellecchia MT, Amboni M, Trojano L, Barone P
    DOI: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2015.08.024

    In PD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (PD-MCI) occurs since early stages of disease. The aims were to assess presence of PD-MCI in untreated, drug-naive PD patients, and to follow-up the sample over 4 years to ascertain evolution of neurocognitive profile.

  • An Italian multicentre validation study of the coma recovery scale-revised.

    Publication Date: 01/10/2015 on European journal of physical and rehabilitation medicine
    by Estraneo A, Moretta P, De Tanti A, Gatta G, Giacino JT, Trojano L,

    Rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DoC) can be reduced by employing validated clinical diagnostic tools, such as the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). An Italian version of the CRS-R has been recently developed, but its applicability across different clinical settings, and its concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity have not been estimated yet.

  • Cognitive dysfunctions in occipital lobe epilepsy compared to temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Publication Date: 22/09/2015 on Journal of neuropsychology
    by Santangelo G, Trojano L, Vitale C, Improta I, Alineri I, Meo R, Bilo L
    DOI: 10.1111/jnp.12085

    To compare cognitive profiles of occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and to investigate whether impairment of visuospatial functions is a specific deficit of OLE.

  • The relationships between interoception and alexithymic trait. The Self-Awareness Questionnaire in healthy subjects.

    Publication Date: 07/08/2015 on Frontiers in psychology
    by Longarzo M, D'Olimpio F, Chiavazzo A, Santangelo G, Trojano L, Grossi D
    DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01149

    Interoception is the basic process enabling evaluation of one's own bodily states. Several previous studies suggested that altered interoception might be related to disorders in the ability to perceive and express emotions, i.e., alexithymia, and to defects in perceiving and describing one's own health status, i.e., hypochondriasis. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between alexithymic trait and interoceptive abilities evaluated by the "Self-Awareness Questionnaire" (SAQ), a novel self-report tool for assessing interoceptive awareness. Two hundred and fifty healthy subjects completed the SAQ, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 items (TAS-20), and a questionnaire to assess hypochondriasis, the Illness Attitude Scale (IAS). The SAQ showed a two-factor structure, with good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). We observed significant direct correlations between SAQ, TAS-20 and two of its subscales, and the IAS. Regression analysis confirmed that the difficulty in identifying and expressing emotions is significantly related with awareness for one's own interoceptive feelings and with a tendency to misinterpret and amplify bodily sensations. From a clinical point of view, the assessment of interoceptive awareness by the SAQ could be pivotal in evaluating several psychopathological conditions, such as the somatoform disorders.

  • Cortical thickness in Parkinsonians with impulse control disorders: A comment.

    Publication Date: 01/08/2015 on Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society
    by Santangelo G, Trojano L, Barone P, Vitale C
    DOI: 10.1002/mds.26262