Coordinate Modulation of Glycolytic Enzymes and OXPHOS by Imatinib in BCR-ABL Driven Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Cells.
Publication Date: 27/06/2019, on International journal of molecular sciences
by De Rosa V, Monti M, Terlizzi C, Fonti R, Del Vecchio S, Iommelli F
Since many oncogenes, including , may promote the acquisition and maintenance of the glycolytic phenotype, we tested whether treatment of BCR-ABL-driven human leukemia cells with imatinib, a selective BCR-ABL inhibitor, can modulate the expression of key glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial complex subunits thus causing alterations of glucose metabolism. BCR-ABL-driven K562 and KCL-22 cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of imatinib to preliminarily test drug sensitivity. Then untreated and treated cells were analyzed for levels of BCR-ABL signaling mediators and key proteins of glycolytic cascade and oxidative phosphorylation. Effective inhibition of BCR-ABL caused a concomitant reduction of p-ERK1/2, p-AKT, phosphorylated form of STAT3 (at Tyr705 and Ser727), c-Myc and cyclin D1 along with an increase of cleaved PARP and caspase 3 at 48 h after treatment. Furthermore, a strong reduction of the hexokinase II (HKII), phosphorylated form of PKM2 (at Tyr105 and Ser37) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A) was observed in response to imatinib along with a strong upregulation of mitochondrial complexes (OXPHOS). According to these findings, a significant reduction of glucose consumption and lactate secretion along with an increase of intracellular ATP levels was observed in response to imatinib. Our findings indicate that imatinib treatment of BCR-ABL-driven human leukemia cells reactivates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation thus allowing potential co-targeting of BCR-ABL and OXPHOS.
PERK-Mediated Unfolded Protein Response Activation and Oxidative Stress in PARK20 Fibroblasts.
Publication Date: 27/06/2019, on Frontiers in neuroscience
by Amodio G, Moltedo O, Fasano D, Zerillo L, Oliveti M, Di Pietro P, Faraonio R, Barone P, Pellecchia MT, De Rosa A, De Michele G, Polishchuk E, Polishchuk R, Bonifati V, Nitsch L, Pierantoni GM, Renna M, Criscuolo C, Paladino S, Remondelli P
PARK20, an early onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism is due to mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-phosphatase Synaptojanin 1 (Synj1). We have recently shown that the early endosomal compartments are profoundly altered in PARK20 fibroblasts as well as the endosomal trafficking. Here, we report that PARK20 fibroblasts also display a drastic alteration of the architecture and function of the early secretory compartments. Our results show that the exit machinery from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and the ER-to-Golgi trafficking are markedly compromised in patient cells. As a consequence, PARK20 fibroblasts accumulate large amounts of cargo proteins within the ER, leading to the induction of ER stress. Interestingly, this stressful state is coupled to the activation of the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In addition, PARK20 fibroblasts reveal upregulation of oxidative stress markers and total ROS production with concomitant alteration of the morphology of the mitochondrial network. Interestingly, treatment of PARK20 cells with GSK2606414 (GSK), a specific inhibitor of PERK activity, restores the level of ROS, signaling a direct correlation between ER stress and the induction of oxidative stress in the PARK20 cells. All together, these findings suggest that dysfunction of early secretory pathway might contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.
HUVEC Tube-formation Assay to Evaluate the Impact of Natural Products on Angiogenesis.
Publication Date: 24/06/2019, on Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE
by Gentile MT, Pastorino O, Bifulco M, Colucci-D'Amato L
Angiogenesis is a phenomenon that includes different processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration, that lead to the formation of new blood vessels and involve several signal transduction pathways. Here we show that the tube formation assay is a simple in vitro method to evaluate the impact of natural products on angiogenesis and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. In particular, in the presence of the water extract of Ruta graveolens (RGWE), endothelial cells are no longer able to form a cell-cell network and that the RGWE effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) tube formation is abolished by the constitutive activation of MEK.
Proteomics and metabolomics studies exploring the pathophysiology of renal dysfunction in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and other ciliopathies.
Publication Date: 20/06/2019, on Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
by Zacchia M, Marchese E, Trani EM, Caterino M, Capolongo G, Perna A, Ruoppolo M, Capasso G
The primary cilium (PC) was considered as a vestigial organelle with no significant physiological importance, until the discovery that PC perturbation disturbs several signalling pathways and results in the dysfunction of a variety of organs. Genetic studies have demonstrated that mutations affecting PC proteins or its anchoring structure, the basal body, underlie a class of human disorders (known as ciliopathies) characterized by a constellation of clinical signs. Further investigations have demonstrated that the PC is involved in a broad range of biological processes, in both developing and mature tissues. Kidney disease is a common clinical feature of cilia disorders, supporting the hypothesis of a crucial role of the PC in kidney homoeostasis. Clinical proteomics and metabolomics are an expanding research area. Interestingly, the application of these methodologies to the analysis of urine, a biological sample that can be collected in a non-invasive fashion and possibly in large amounts, makes these studies feasible also in patients. The present article describes the most recent proteomic and metabolomic studies exploring kidney dysfunction in the setting of ciliopathies, showing the potential of these methodologies in the elucidation of disease pathophysiology and in the discovery of biomarkers.
Short communication: Space allocation in intensive Mediterranean buffalo production influences the profile of functional biomolecules in milk and dairy products.
Publication Date: 19/06/2019, on Journal of dairy science
by Salzano A, Licitra F, D'Onofrio N, Balestrieri ML, Limone A, Campanile G, D'Occhio MJ, Neglia G
The aim of the present study was to determine if space allocation influenced the concentration of biomolecules in buffalo milk and dairy products. Intensively housed buffaloes (n = 96) were randomly assigned to 2 groups according to days in milk, parity, and milk yield: group S10 had a space allocation of 10 m per buffalo and group S15 had a space allocation of 15 m per buffalo. Individual milk yield was recorded daily. Twice a month, a bulk milk sample was collected for each group, as well as whey, ricotta, and mozzarella cheese, to assess cheese yield and to conduct HPLC-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry, milk antioxidant activity, and cell viability analyses. We tested milk extracts from the 2 groups in vitro to evaluate their efficacy in counteracting endothelial oxidative damage induced by high glucose. We evaluated reproductive function in 28 buffaloes from each group using the Ovsynch-timed artificial insemination program. We observed no differences in milk quantity or quality in terms of fat, protein, or lactose, and reproductive function did not differ between the 2 groups. Compared with group S10, group S15 had higher concentrations of carnitine (56.7 ± 1.1 vs. 39.8 ± 0.7 mg/L in milk and 40.9 ± 0.8 vs. 31.7 ± 0.7 mg/L in whey), acetyl-l-carnitine (51.9 ± 0.3 vs. 39.7 ± 0.7 mg/L in milk and 41.1 ± 1.7 vs. 28.7 ± 2.6 mg/L in whey), propionyl-l-carnitine (34.8 ± 1.0 vs. 21.0 ± 0.9 mg/L in milk and 26.9 ± 0.8 vs. 17.6 ± 1.2 mg/L in whey), glycine betaine (23.1 ± 1.9 vs. 13.5 ± 1.6 mg/L in milk and 10.7 ± 0.4 vs. 7.9 ± 0.5 mg/L in whey), and δ-valerobetaine (24.2 ± 0.5 vs. 16.7 ± 0.5 mg/L in milk and 22.0 ± 0.9 vs. 15.5 ± 0.7 mg/L in whey). Group S15 also had higher total antioxidant activity than group S10 (56.7 ± 1.9 vs. 46.4 ± 1.13 mM Trolox equivalents). Co-incubation of high-glucose-treated endothelial cells with milk extracts from group S15 improved cell viability compared with cells treated with high glucose only; it also reduced intracellular lipid peroxidation (144.3 ± 0.4 vs. 177.5 ± 1.9%), reactive oxygen species (141.3 ± 0.9 vs. 189.3 ± 4.7 optical density units), and cytokine release (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6). Greater space allocation was associated with higher levels of biomolecules in buffalo milk. This could have been the result of improved welfare in buffaloes that were allocated more space.
Outcomes after fingolimod to alemtuzumab treatment shift in relapsing-remitting MS patients: a multicentre cohort study.
Publication Date: 17/06/2019, on Journal of neurology
by Frau J, Saccà F, Signori A, Baroncini D, Fenu G, Annovazzi P, Capobianco M, Signoriello E, Laroni A, La Gioia S, Sartori A, Maniscalco GT, Bonavita S, Clerico M, Russo CV, Gallo A, Lapucci C, Carotenuto A, Sormani MP, Cocco E,
A high reactivation of multiple sclerosis (MS) was reported in patients treated with alemtuzumab after fingolimod. We aimed to understand whether this shift enhanced the risk for reactivation in a real-life cohort.
Dramatic neurological debut in a case of Köhlmeier-Degos disease.
Publication Date: 10/06/2019, on Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
by Saracino D, D'Armiento FP, Conforti R, Napolitano M, Elefante A, Sampaolo S, Puoti G
Real-life glecaprevir/pibrentasvir in a large cohort of patients with hepatitis C virus infection: The MISTRAL Study.
Publication Date: 07/06/2019, on Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
by Persico M, Aglitti A, Milella M, Coppola C, Messina V, Claar E, Gentile I, Sogari F, Pierri P, Surace LA, Morisco F, Tundo P, Brancaccio G, Serviddio G, Gatti P, Termite AP, Di Costanzo GG, Caroleo B, Cozzolongo R, Coppola N, Longo A, Fontanella L, Federico A, Rosato V, Terrenato I, Masarone M
It is paramount to identify predictors of treatment failure with direct antiviral agents in 'field-practice' patients, including people who inject drugs (PWID). Data on the efficacy of glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) in a field-practice scenario are scant. The multicenter MISTRAL study enrolled 1,177 patients, including PWID, to assess real-life efficacy and safety of GLE/PIB and to identify the predictive factors for this treatment.
Atherogenic Index Reduction and Weight Loss in Metabolic Syndrome Patients Treated with A Novel Pectin-Enriched Formulation of Bergamot Polyphenols.
Publication Date: 04/06/2019, on Nutrients
by Capomolla AS, Janda E, Paone S, Parafati M, Sawicki T, Mollace R, Ragusa S, Mollace V
Bergamot flavonoids counteract dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia but fail to induce a significant weight loss. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of bergamot polyphenol extract complex (BPE-C), a novel bergamot juice-derived formulation enriched with flavonoids and pectins, on several metabolic syndrome parameters. Obese patients with atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) over 0.34 and mild hyperglycemia were recruited to a double-blind randomized trial comparing two doses of BPE-C (650 and 1300 mg daily) with placebo. Fifty-two subjects met the inclusion criteria and were assigned to three experimental groups. Fifteen subjects per group completed 90 days-trial. BPE-C reduced significantly fasting glucose by 18.1%, triglycerides by 32% and cholesterol parameters by up to 41.4%, leading to a powerful reduction of AIP (below 0.2) in the high dose group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin levels were also reduced. Moreover, BPE-C decreased body weight by 14.8% and body mass index by 15.9% in BPE-C high group. This correlated with a significant reduction of circulating hormones balancing caloric intake, including leptin, ghrelin and upregulation of adiponectin. All effects showed a dose-dependent tendency. This study suggests that food supplements, containing full spectrum of bergamot juice components, such as BPE-C efficiently induce a combination of weight loss and insulin sensitivity effects together with a robust reduction of atherosclerosis risk.
Mass spectrometry based proteomics for the molecular fingerprinting of Fiano, Greco and Falanghina cultivars.
Publication Date: 01/06/2019, on Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.)
by Carpentieri A, Sebastianelli A, Melchiorre C, Pinto G, Staropoli A, Trifuoggi M, Amoresano A
The official methodologies used for the identification and comparison of vine cultivars are ampelography and ampelometry. These methodologies are essentially based on qualitative assessments or biometric dependent morphological features of the plant. The heterogeneity of cultivars and consequently the increasing demand for a more detailed product typization, led to the introduction of new methodologies for the varietal characterization. In this scenario, proteomics has already proved to be a very useful discipline for the typization of many kinds of edible products. In this paper, we present a proteomic study carried out on three cultivars of Vitis vinifera peculiar of south Italy (Campania) used for white wine production (Fiano, Greco and Falanghina) by advanced biomolecular mass spectrometry approach. Our data highlight variations in the proteomic profiles during ripening for each cultivar and between analyzed cultivars, thus suggesting a new way to outline the biomolecular signature of vines.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in patients with X-linked retinoschisis: effects on macular morphology and function.
Publication Date: 31/05/2019, on Ophthalmic genetics
by Testa F, Di Iorio V, Gallo B, Marchese M, Nesti A, De Rosa G, Melillo P, Simonelli F
: Currently there is no medical treatment for X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS). In many retinal dystrophies, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) are effectively used to reduce cystoid macular edema. Prospective studies investigating the effect of CAIs in patients with XLRS are needed for the evaluation of their efficacy in this disease. The purpose of our work is to investigate the effects on macular morphology and function of oral CAIs used for the treatment of foveal lesions in patients with XLRS. : Nineteen patients with a clinical diagnosis of XLRS were enrolled and prescribed oral CAIs for six months. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of CAIs with: best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, microperimetry (MP) and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). : We observed a significant improvement of BCVA (p-value = 0.013), central retinal thickness (p-value = 0.004) and macular sensitivity (p-value<0.001). Moreover, in regards to mfERG responses, an increase of P1 wave amplitude was observed in three of the six rings. : Our data supports the efficacy of oral CAIs for the treatment of macular cyst-like lesions in XLRS patients. The recovery of a normal retinal anatomy by means of oral CAIs could be useful to create the optimal circumstances for gene therapy. The increase in macular sensitivity and in P1 wave amplitude confirmed that MP and mfERG provide with an unbiased and more sensitive understanding of how macular function may respond to the use of CAIs. Therefore, we recommend the use of MP and mfERG to assess the effect of therapy in XLRS.
Parkinson's disease management and impulse control disorders: current state and future perspectives.
Publication Date: 31/05/2019, on Expert review of neurotherapeutics
by Vitale C, Amboni M, Erro R, Picillo M, Pellecchia MT, Barone P, Trojano L, Santangelo G
: Impulse control disorders (ICDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD) are a group of impulsive behaviors most often associated, but not limited to, dopamine replacement therapy (DRT), particularly the use of dopamine agonists (DA). ICDs can impair activities of daily living and have a strong negative impact on quality of life of patients and their families. : This review mainly focusses on the most common ICDs in the context of currently accepted management strategies for PD and emphasizes areas of controversy in need of further research. The authors further describe the concept of dopamine agonist withdrawal (DAWS) syndrome and its implication for the treatment of ICDs, the role of recently available antiparkinsonian drugs and routes of delivery, and non-pharmacological treatments. : When ICDs develop, proper management mainly consists of reducing, discontinuing or switching dopaminergic agents, especially of DA. In these scenarios, patients should be closely followed up as their motor condition may deteriorate along with occurrence of DAWS. Assessment of the presence and intensity of ICDs should be carried throughout the course of the disease and not only when a particular treatment is started or when the dosage is increased, since their occurrence is not linearly related to DRT alone.
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Impair Vasculogenic Mimicry from Glioblastoma Cells.
Publication Date: 29/05/2019, on Cancers
by Pastorino O, Gentile MT, Mancini A, Del Gaudio N, Di Costanzo A, Bajetto A, Franco P, Altucci L, Florio T, Stoppelli MP, Colucci-D'Amato L
Glioblastoma (GBM), a high-grade glioma (WHO grade IV), is the most aggressive form of brain cancer. Available treatment options for GBM involve a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy but result in a poor survival outcome. GBM is a high-vascularized tumor and antiangiogenic drugs are widely used in GBM therapy as adjuvants to control abnormal vasculature. Vasculogenic mimicry occurs in GBM as an alternative vascularization mechanism, providing a means whereby GBM can escape anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, using an in vitro tube formation assay on Matrigel, we evaluated the ability of different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) to interfere with vasculogenic mimicry. We found that vorinostat (SAHA) and MC1568 inhibit tube formation by rat glioma C6 cells. Moreover, at sublethal doses for GBM cells, SAHA, trichostatin A (TSA), entinostat (MS275), and MC1568 significantly decrease tube formation by U87MG and by patient-derived human GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs). The reduced migration and invasion of HDACis-treated U87 cells, at least in part, may account for the inhibition of tube formation. In conclusion, our results indicate that HDACis are promising candidates for blocking vascular mimicry in GBM.
Effects of Long-Term Citrate Treatment in the PC3 Prostate Cancer Cell Line.
Publication Date: 28/05/2019, on International journal of molecular sciences
by Caiazza C, D'Agostino M, Passaro F, Faicchia D, Mallardo M, Paladino S, Pierantoni GM, Tramontano D
Acute administration of a high level of extracellular citrate displays an anti-proliferative effect on both in vitro and in vivo models. However, the long-term effect of citrate treatment has not been investigated yet. Here, we address this question in PC3 cells, a prostate-cancer-derived cell line. Acute administration of high levels of extracellular citrate impaired cell adhesion and inhibited the proliferation of PC3 cells, but surviving cells adapted to grow in the chronic presence of 20 mM citrate. Citrate-resistant PC3 cells are significantly less glycolytic than control cells. Moreover, they overexpress short-form, citrate-insensitive phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1) together with full-length PFK1. In addition, they show traits of mesenchymal-epithelial transition: an increase in E-cadherin and a decrease in vimentin. In comparison with PC3 cells, citrate-resistant cells display morphological changes that involve both microtubule and microfilament organization. This was accompanied by changes in homeostasis and the organization of intracellular organelles. Thus, the mitochondrial network appears fragmented, the Golgi complex is scattered, and the lysosomal compartment is enlarged. Interestingly, citrate-resistant cells produce less total ROS but accumulate more mitochondrial ROS than control cells. Consistently, in citrate-resistant cells, the autophagic pathway is upregulated, possibly sustaining their survival. In conclusion, chronic administration of citrate might select resistant cells, which could jeopardize the benefits of citrate anticancer treatment.
Retraction: The microRNA 15a/16-1 cluster down-regulates protein repair isoaspartyl methyltransferase in hepatoma cells: Implications for apoptosis regulation.
Publication Date: 24/05/2019, on The Journal of biological chemistry
by Sambri I, Capasso R, Pucci P, Perna AF, Ingrosso D