on Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes
by Russo G, Barbato F, Cardone E, Fattore M, Albrizio S, Grumetto L
A simple and sensitive validated analytical method based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem fluorescence (FD) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry was applied to monitor the presence of bisphenol A and bisphenol S in plastic baby bottles marketed in Italy. The limits of detection (LOD) were 3.75 ng mL-1 and 80.00 ng mL-1, and those of quantification (LOQ) were 12.51 ng mL-1 and 260.00 ng mL-1 for BPA (FD detection) and for BPS (UV detection), respectively. BPA was found in only four samples, two samples undergone to microwave heating and two samples undergone to bottle warmer heating either at 40°C or at 80°C. Although the quantities of leached BPA were well below the reference dose for daily intake established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) (4.0 µg kg-1 bw/day), the release of BPA and BPS from these plastic materials should be carefully considered by the government authorities to increase people's awareness on this issue and to protect the most vulnerable population group.
on Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
by Fattore M, Russo G, Barbato F, Grumetto L, Albrizio S
Monitoring of food contamination from bisphenols is a necessary process for the consumers' risk assessment. A method for the quali-quantitative analysis of Bisphenol A (BPA), Bisphenol B (BPB), Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE), and Bisphenol F Diglycidyl Ether (BFDGE), by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), was performed and validated for their determination in 33 samples of tuna fish, canned in either oil or aqueous medium. Samples were collected in Italian markets. Tuna and the correspondent preservation medium were analyzed separately. Detected levels of bisphenols ranged from 19.1 to 187.0 ng/g in tuna matrix and from 6.3 to 66.9 ng/mL in oil medium. No bisphenols were found in aqueous medium. At least one of the analytes was found in 83% of the tuna samples in oil medium, whereas tuna samples in aqueous medium showed BPA alone in 67% of samples. 21% of the oil medium samples resulted positive for at least one bisphenol. On the basis of measured concentrations and general daily ingestion rate of canned tuna fish, the probable daily intake of BPA for Italian population was calculated.
on Food chemistry
by Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Fattore M, Albrizio S, Berrada H, Mañes J
Since cereals are raw materials for production of beer and beer-based drinks, the occurrence mycotoxins in 154 beer samples was topic of investigation in this study. The analyses were conducted using QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination. The analytical method showed recoveries for vast majority of analytes ranged from 70% to 110%, relative standard deviations lower than 15% and limits of detection from 0.05 to 8 μg/L. A significant incidence of HT-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) were found in 9.1% and 59.7% of total samples, respectively. The exposure of European population to mycotoxins through beer consumption was assessed. No toxicological concern was associated to mycotoxins exposure for average beer consumers. Despite that, for heavy beer drinkers, the contribution of this commodity to the daily intake is not negligible, approaching or even exceeding the safety levels.
on Journal of food protection
by Grumetto L, Gennari O, Montesano D, Ferracane R, Ritieni A, Albrizio S, Barbato F
The presence of five bisphenols, i.e., bisphenol F, bisphenol A, bisphenol B, bisphenol F diglycidyl ether, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, was monitored in commercial milk packed in plastic bottles marketed in Italy. The new validated method includes a solid-phase extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. All positive results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The limits of detection and quantification and the recovery percentages indicated that the method is suitable for detecting bisphenols in milk at concentrations far below the legal limits. Of 68 commercial milk samples analyzed, no bisphenol was found in 27 samples (39.7%), and 41 samples (60.3%) contained one or more bisphenols. The bisphenol most frequently found was bisphenol F (36 samples, 52.9%) followed by bisphenol A (20 samples, 29.4%) and bisphenol B (6 samples, 8.8%). Taking into consideration the limits of detection, no sample contained either bisphenol F diglycidyl ether or bisphenol A diglycidyl ether.
on Biomedical chromatography : BMC
by Gennari O, Montesano D, Salzano A, Albrizio S, Grumetto L
A method for the determination of dimethyl fumarate (DMF) in desiccant and antimould sachets, employed for protecting consumer products from humidity and mould, has been developed. The method is based on a solid-liquid extraction followed by HPLC-UV analysis. The method was validated with respect to recovery, linearity, limits of detection and quantitation and precision. The recovery was 98%. The correlation coefficient value (r) was equal to 0.94. Both intra- and inter-day precisions were studied at several concentration levels, being satisfactory in all cases (RSD < 5). Limits of detection and quantification values were in the low microgram per gram level, thus allowing the determination of DMF at concentrations below the limit established (0.1 mg/kg) by the recent EU Directive (Decision 2009/251/EC). The proposed procedure was applied for the determination of the target compound in 41 desiccant and antimould samples. DMF was detected in 39.0% of samples and its content in many samples exceeded the legal limits. The results of our analysis highlight the high risk of exposure to this powerful allergic sensitizer for consumers.
on Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
by Grumetto L, Montesano D, Seccia S, Albrizio S, Barbato F
Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol B (BPB) concentrations were determined in peeled canned tomatoes of different brands bought in Italian supermarkets. Tomato samples analyzed were packaged in cans coated with either epoxyphenolic lacquer or low BADGE enamel. A solid phase extraction (SPE) was performed on C-18 Strata E cartridge followed by a step on Florisil cartridge. Detection and quantitation were performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method with both UV and fluorescence detection (FD). On the total of 42 tested tomato samples, BPA was detected in 22 samples (52.4%), while BPB was detected in 9 samples (21.4%). BPA and BPB were simultaneously present in 8 of the analyzed samples. The levels of BPA found in this study are much lower than the European Union migration limits of 3 mg/kg food and reasonably unable to produce a daily intake exceeding the limit of 0.05 mg/kg body weight, established by European Food Safety Authority.
on Journal of medicinal chemistry
by Albrizio S, Giusti L, D'Errico G, Esposito C, Porchia F, Caliendo G, Novellino E, Mazzoni MR, Rovero P, D'Ursi AM
A42 is a chimera peptide consisting of Galphas(374-394)C379A--the 21-mer C terminus of the Galphas protein, able of adenosine inhibitory activity--and penetratin--the 16 residue fragment, derived from the homeodomain of the Drosophila transcription factor Antennapedia. A42 is able to cross cell membranes and to inhibit A2A and A2B adenosine and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulated camps (D'Ursi et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 2006, 69, 727-36). Here we present an extensive biophysical study of A42 in different membrane mimetics, with the objective to evaluate the molecular mechanisms which promote the membrane permeation. Fluorescence, CD, and NMR data were acquired in the presence of negatively charged and zwitterionic sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecylphosphocholine surfactants. To validate the spectroscopic results in a larger scale, fluorescence microscopy experiments were performed on negatively charged and zwitterionic dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine vesicles. Our results show that the internalization of A42 is mainly driven by electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions playing only a secondary, sinergistic role. The distribution of the charges along the molecule has an important role, highlighting that internalization is a process which requires a specific matching of peptide and membrane properties.
on Journal of peptide science : an official publication of the European Peptide Society
by Albrizio S, Caliendo G, D'Errico G, Novellino E, Rovero P, D'Ursi AM
The heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G proteins, Galphabetagamma) mediate the signalling process of a large number of receptors, known as G protein-coupled receptors. The C-terminal domain of the heterotrimeric G protein alpha-subunit plays a key role in the selective activation of G proteins by their cognate receptors. The interaction of this domain can take place at the end of a cascade including several successive conformational modifications. Galpha(s)(350-394) is the 45-mer peptide corresponding to the C-terminal region of the Galpha(s) subunit. In the crystal structure of the Galpha(s) subunit it encompasses the alpha4/beta6 loop, the beta6 beta-sheet segment and the alpha5 helix region. Following a previous study based on the synthesis, biological activity and conformational analysis of shorter peptides belonging to the same Galpha(s) region, Galpha(s)(350-394) was synthesized and investigated. The present study outlines the central role played by the residues involved in the alpha4/beta6 loop and beta6/alpha5 loops in the stabilization of the C-terminal Galpha(s)alpha-helix. H(2)O/(2)H(2)O exchange experiments, and NMR diffusion experiments show interesting evidence concerning the interaction between the SDS micelles and the polypeptide. These data prompt intriguing speculations on the role of the intracellular environment/cellular membrane interface in the stabilization and functionality of the C-terminal Galpha(s) region.
on Journal of medicinal chemistry
by D'Ursi AM, Albrizio S, Di Fenza A, Crescenzi O, Carotenuto A, Picone D, Novellino E, Rovero P
Prolactin-releasing peptides (PrRPs) are two novel bioactive peptides of 20 and 31 residues, dubbed respectively PrRP20 and PrRP31, isolated from bovine hypothalamic tissues as ligands of the orphan seven-transmembrane domain receptor Hgr3. The first biological activity identified for these peptides was the release of prolactin. Recent data on biological activities of PrRPs as well as on the localization of their receptors in numerous central nervous system sites suggested new potential actions of PrRPs in the regulation of the central nervous system and the possibility of identifying an alternative central role for these peptides. We describe here the synthesis and the structural characterization of the peptide PrRP20 by CD and NMR spectroscopies. A 3D model was built on the basis of the NMR data collected in a water/sodium dodecyl sulfate mixture. This system provides an amphipatic medium able to mimic the cell membrane. The main structural feature of the PrRP20 is an alpha-helical secondary structure spanning the 10 C-terminal residues. The conformational properties of PrRP20 are discussed in considering the sequence similarity observed between the Hgr3 and the neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors. This similarity, together with the data showing a number of biological activities common to PrRP and NPY peptides, leads us to formulate the hypothesis that similar structural elements could exist in the ligands as well. In fact, PrRP20 and NPY are well aligned in the C-terminal portion, where they share an amphipatic alpha-helical secondary structure. Interestingly, the homology between the two sequences involves residues crucial for NPY biological activity. The conformational characterization of PrRP20 and the comparison with NPY are a valuable starting point for the rational design of subsequent SAR studies aimed at identifying PrRP analogues acting as either agonists or antagonists at the Hgr3 receptor. Such PrRP analogues could be useful receptorial tools able to clarify the multiple biological functions hypothesized for the PrRP receptor in the central nervous system.
on Journal of medicinal chemistry
by Albrizio S, Carotenuto A, Fattorusso C, Moroder L, Picone D, Temussi PA, D'Ursi A
CCK-15, a peptide derived from the 115-membered CCK preprohormone, was the object of a comparative conformational analysis by NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling methods. NMR data in several solvents demonstrate that the propensity of the peptide to fold into a helical conformation is intrinsic, not merely a consequence of the interaction with phosphatidylcholine micelles or with a putative receptor, as suggested by a previous study on CCK-8 (Pellegrini, M.; Mierke, D. Biochemistry 1999, 38, 14775-14783.). The prevailing CCK-15 conformer in a mixture 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoroacetone/water reveals that the residues common to CCK-15 and CCK-8 assume very similar conformations. Our CCK-15 structure is consistent with the model of receptor interaction proposed by Pellegrini and Mierke and discloses possible novel interactions that involve a larger area of the putative receptor. The consensus structure between CCK-15 and CCK-8 shows a good superposition of the side chains of residues 12-14 with crucial moieties of two non-peptidic CCK-A antagonists.