on The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology
by Follo C, Ozzano M, Montalenti C, Ekkapongpisit M, Isidoro C
The lysosomal protease Cathepsin D (CD) plays a role in neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and embryo-fetus abnormalities. It is therefore of interest to know how this protein is synthesized in animal species used for modeling human diseases. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is emerging as a valuable 'in vivo' vertebrate model for several human diseases. We have characterized the biogenetic pathways of zebrafish and human CD transgenically expressed in both human SH-SY5Y cells and zebrafish PAC2 cells. Differently from human CD, zebrafish CD was synthesized as a mono-glycosylated precursor (pro-CD) that was eventually processed into a single-chain mature polypeptide. In PAC2 cells, ammonium chloride and chloroquine impaired the N-glycosylation, and greatly stimulated the secretion, of pro-CD; still, a portion of un-glycosylated pro-CD reached the lysosomes and was processed to mature CD. The treatment with tunicamycin, which abrogates N-glycosylation, resulted in a similar effect. Zebrafish pro-CD was correctly processed when expressed in human cells, and its glycosylation, transport and maturation were not impaired by ammonium chloride. On the contrary, the transport and processing of human pro-CD expressed in zebrafish cells were profoundly altered: while the intermediate single-chain was not detectable, a small amount of double-chain mature CD still formed. This fact indicates that the enzyme machinery for single- to double-chain processing of mammal CD is present in zebrafish. Our data highlight the respective impact of the information imparted by the primary sequence and of the cellular transport and processing machineries in the biogenesis of lysosomal CD.
on Molecular neurobiology
by Janda E, Isidoro C, Carresi C, Mollace V
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a paradigmatic example of neurodegenerative disorder with a critical role of oxidative stress in its etiopathogenesis. Genetic susceptibility factors of PD, such as mutations in Parkin, PTEN-induced kinase 1, and DJ-1 as well as the exposure to pesticides and heavy metals, both contribute to altered redox balance and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Dysregulation of autophagy, a lysosomal-driven process of self degradation of cellular organelles and protein aggregates, is also implicated in PD and PD-related mutations, and environmental toxins deregulate autophagy. However, experimental evidence suggests a complex and ambiguous role of autophagy in PD since either impaired or abnormally upregulated autophagic flux has been shown to cause neuronal loss. Finally, it is generally believed that oxidative stress is a strong proautophagic stimulus. However, some evidence coming from neurobiology as well as from other fields indicate an inhibitory role of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species on the autophagic machinery. This review examines the scientific evidence supporting different concepts on how autophagy is dysregulated in PD and attempts to reconcile apparently contradictory views on the role of oxidative stress in autophagy regulation. The complex relationship between autophagy and oxidative stress is also considered in the context of the ongoing search for a novel PD therapy.
on Cell death and differentiation
by Fortini P, Ferretti C, Pascucci B, Narciso L, Pajalunga D, Puggioni EM, Castino R, Isidoro C, Crescenzi M, Dogliotti E
DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) formation coordinates the myogenic program, and defects in SSB repair in post-mitotic cells have been associated with human diseases. However, the DNA damage response by SSB in terminally differentiated cells has not been explored yet. Here we show that mouse post-mitotic muscle cells accumulate SSB after alkylation damage, but they are extraordinarily resistant to the killing effects of a variety of SSB-inducers. We demonstrate that, upon SSB induction, phosphorylation of H2AX occurs in myotubes and is largely ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent. However, the DNA damage signaling cascade downstream of ATM is defective as shown by lack of p53 increase and phosphorylation at serine 18 (human serine 15). The stabilization of p53 by nutlin-3 was ineffective in activating the cell death pathway, indicating that the resistance to SSB inducers is due to defective p53 downstream signaling. The induction of specific types of damage is required to activate the cell death program in myotubes. Besides the topoisomerase inhibitor doxorubicin known for its cardiotoxicity, we show that the mitochondria-specific inhibitor menadione is able to activate p53 and to kill effectively myotubes. Cell killing is p53-dependent as demonstrated by full protection of myotubes lacking p53, but there is a restriction of p53-activated genes. This new information may have important therapeutic implications in the prevention of muscle cell toxicity.
on Journal of ovarian research
by Peracchio C, Alabiso O, Valente G, Isidoro C
Autophagy is a lysosomal-driven catabolic process that contributes to preserve cell and tissue homeostases through the regular elimination of damaged, aged and redundant self-constituents. In normal cells, autophagy protects from DNA mutation and carcinogenesis by preventive elimination of pro-oxidative mitochondria and protein aggregates. Mutations in oncogenes and oncosuppressor genes dysregulate autophagy. Up-regulated autophagy may confer chemo- and radio-resistance to cancer cells, and also a pro-survival advantage in cancer cells experiencing oxygen and nutrient shortage. This fact is the rationale for using autophagy inhibitors along with anti-neoplastic therapies. Yet, aberrant hyper-induction of autophagy can lead to cell death, and this phenomenon could also be exploited for cancer therapy. The actual level of autophagy in the cancer cell is greatly affected by vascularization, inflammation, and stromal cell infiltration. In addition, small non-coding microRNAs have recently emerged as important epigenetic modulators of autophagy. The present review focuses on the potential involvement of macroautophagy, and on its genetic and epigenetic regulation, in ovarian cancer pathogenesis and progression.
on Brain research
by Cagnin M, Ozzano M, Bellio N, Fiorentino I, Follo C, Isidoro C
A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the presence within neurons and the interneuronal space of aggregates of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides that originate from an abnormal proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). The aspartyl proteases that initiate this processing act in the Golgi and endosomal compartments. Here, we show that the neurotransmitter dopamine stimulates the rapid endocytosis and processing of APP and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells over-expressing transgenic human APP (Swedish mutant). Apoptosis could be prevented by impairing Pepstatin-sensitive and acid-dependent proteolysis of APP within endosomal-lysosomal compartments. The γ-secretase inhibitor L685,458 and the α-secretase stimulator phorbol ester elicited protection from dopamine-induced proteolysis of APP and cell toxicity. Our data shed lights on the mechanistic link between dopamine excitotoxicity, processing of APP and neuronal cell death. Since AD often associates with parkinsonian symptoms, which is suggestive of dopaminergic neurodegeneration, the present data provide the rationale for the therapeutic use of lysosomal activity inhibitors such as chloroquine or Pepstatin A to alleviate the progression of AD leading to onset of parkinsonism.
on Panminerva medica
by Morani F, Pagano L, Prodam F, Aimaretti G, Isidoro C
Molecular imaging diagnosis with FDG-PET ((18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography) can reveal the presence of un-suspected thyroid cancer that are referred to as "incidentaloma" because of the incidental finding. The glucose analogue (18)FDG is internalized in the cells by glucose transporters belonging to the GLUTs family. The surface expression of GLUT is under the control of the PI3k/Akt pathway. PTEN is an oncosuppressor frequently mutated or deleted in thyroid cancers. The lipid phosphatase activity of wild type PTEN switches off the Akt pathway. Here we tested the hypothesis that PTEN expression might affect the surface expression of GLUT1 and therefore influence the possibility of "incidental" detection of thyroid cancer based on FDG-PET.
by Klionsky DJ, Abdalla FC, Abeliovich H, Abraham RT, Acevedo-Arozena A, Adeli K, Agholme L, Agnello M, Agostinis P, Aguirre-Ghiso JA, Ahn HJ, Ait-Mohamed O, Ait-Si-Ali S, Akematsu T, Akira S, Al-Younes HM, Al-Zeer MA, Albert ML, Albin RL, Alegre-Abarrategui J, Aleo MF, Alirezaei M, Almasan A, Almonte-Becerril M, Amano A, Amaravadi R, Amarnath S, Amer AO, Andrieu-Abadie N, Anantharam V, Ann DK, Anoopkumar-Dukie S, Aoki H, Apostolova N, Arancia G, Aris JP, Asanuma K, Asare NY, Ashida H, Askanas V, Askew DS, Auberger P, Baba M, Backues SK, Baehrecke EH, Bahr BA, Bai XY, Bailly Y, Baiocchi R, Baldini G, Balduini W, Ballabio A, Bamber BA, Bampton ET, Bánhegyi G, Bartholomew CR, Bassham DC, Bast RC Jr, Batoko H, Bay BH, Beau I, Béchet DM, Begley TJ, Behl C, Behrends C, Bekri S, Bellaire B, Bendall LJ, Benetti L, Berliocchi L, Bernardi H, Bernassola F, Besteiro S, Bhatia-Kissova I, Bi X, Biard-Piechaczyk M, Blum JS, Boise LH, Bonaldo P, Boone DL, Bornhauser BC, Bortoluci KR, Bossis I, Bost F, Bourquin JP, Boya P, Boyer-Guittaut M, Bozhkov PV, Brady NR, Brancolini C, Brech A, Brenman JE, Brennand A, Bresnick EH, Brest P, Bridges D, Bristol ML, Brookes PS, Brown EJ, Brumell JH, Brunetti-Pierri N, Brunk UT, Bulman DE, Bultman SJ, Bultynck G, Burbulla LF, Bursch W, Butchar JP, Buzgariu W, Bydlowski SP, Cadwell K, Cahová M, Cai D, Cai J, Cai Q, Calabretta B, Calvo-Garrido J, Camougrand N, Campanella M, Campos-Salinas J, Candi E, Cao L, Caplan AB, Carding SR, Cardoso SM, Carew JS, Carlin CR, Carmignac V, Carneiro LA, Carra S, Caruso RA, Casari G, Casas C, Castino R, Cebollero E, Cecconi F, Celli J, Chaachouay H, Chae HJ, Chai CY, Chan DC, Chan EY, Chang RC, Che CM, Chen CC, Chen GC, Chen GQ, Chen M, Chen Q, Chen SS, Chen W, Chen X, Chen X, Chen X, Chen YG, Chen Y, Chen Y, Chen YJ, Chen Z, Cheng A, Cheng CH, Cheng Y, Cheong H, Cheong JH, Cherry S, Chess-Williams R, Cheung ZH, Chevet E, Chiang HL, Chiarelli R, Chiba T, Chin LS, Chiou SH, Chisari FV, Cho CH, Cho DH, Choi AM, Choi D, Choi KS, Choi ME, Chouaib S, Choubey D, Choubey V, Chu CT, Chuang TH, Chueh SH, Chun T, Chwae YJ, Chye ML, Ciarcia R, Ciriolo MR, Clague MJ, Clark RS, Clarke PG, Clarke R, Codogno P, Coller HA, Colombo MI, Comincini S, Condello M, Condorelli F, Cookson MR, Coombs GH, Coppens I, Corbalan R, Cossart P, Costelli P, Costes S, Coto-Montes A, Couve E, Coxon FP, Cregg JM, Crespo JL, Cronjé MJ, Cuervo AM, Cullen JJ, Czaja MJ, D'Amelio M, Darfeuille-Michaud A, Davids LM, Davies FE, De Felici M, de Groot JF, de Haan CA, De Martino L, De Milito A, De Tata V, Debnath J, Degterev A, Dehay B, Delbridge LM, Demarchi F, Deng YZ, Dengjel J, Dent P, Denton D, Deretic V, Desai SD, Devenish RJ, Di Gioacchino M, Di Paolo G, Di Pietro C, Díaz-Araya G, Díaz-Laviada I, Diaz-Meco MT, Diaz-Nido J, Dikic I, Dinesh-Kumar SP, Ding WX, Distelhorst CW, Diwan A, Djavaheri-Mergny M, Dokudovskaya S, Dong Z, Dorsey FC, Dosenko V, Dowling JJ, Doxsey S, Dreux M, Drew ME, Duan Q, Duchosal MA, Duff K, Dugail I, Durbeej M, Duszenko M, Edelstein CL, Edinger AL, Egea G, Eichinger L, Eissa NT, Ekmekcioglu S, El-Deiry WS, Elazar Z, Elgendy M, Ellerby LM, Eng KE, Engelbrecht AM, Engelender S, Erenpreisa J, Escalante R, Esclatine A, Eskelinen EL, Espert L, Espina V, Fan H, Fan J, Fan QW, Fan Z, Fang S, Fang Y, Fanto M, Fanzani A, Farkas T, Farré JC, Faure M, Fechheimer M, Feng CG, Feng J, Feng Q, Feng Y, Fésüs L, Feuer R, Figueiredo-Pereira ME, Fimia GM, Fingar DC, Finkbeiner S, Finkel T, Finley KD, Fiorito F, Fisher EA, Fisher PB, Flajolet M, Florez-McClure ML, Florio S, Fon EA, Fornai F, Fortunato F, Fotedar R, Fowler DH, Fox HS, Franco R, Frankel LB, Fransen M, Fuentes JM, Fueyo J, Fujii J, Fujisaki K, Fujita E, Fukuda M, Furukawa RH, Gaestel M, Gailly P, Gajewska M, Galliot B, Galy V, Ganesh S, Ganetzky B, Ganley IG, Gao FB, Gao GF, Gao J, Garcia L, Garcia-Manero G, Garcia-Marcos M, Garmyn M, Gartel AL, Gatti E, Gautel M, Gawriluk TR, Gegg ME, Geng J, Germain M, Gestwicki JE, Gewirtz DA, Ghavami S, Ghosh P, Giammarioli AM, Giatromanolaki AN, Gibson SB, Gilkerson RW, Ginger ML, Ginsberg HN, Golab J, Goligorsky MS, Golstein P, Gomez-Manzano C, Goncu E, Gongora C, Gonzalez CD, Gonzalez R, González-Estévez C, González-Polo RA, Gonzalez-Rey E, Gorbunov NV, Gorski S, Goruppi S, Gottlieb RA, Gozuacik D, Granato GE, Grant GD, Green KN, Gregorc A, Gros F, Grose C, Grunt TW, Gual P, Guan JL, Guan KL, Guichard SM, Gukovskaya AS, Gukovsky I, Gunst J, Gustafsson AB, Halayko AJ, Hale AN, Halonen SK, Hamasaki M, Han F, Han T, Hancock MK, Hansen M, Harada H, Harada M, Hardt SE, Harper JW, Harris AL, Harris J, Harris SD, Hashimoto M, Haspel JA, Hayashi S, Hazelhurst LA, He C, He YW, Hébert MJ, Heidenreich KA, Helfrich MH, Helgason GV, Henske EP, Herman B, Herman PK, Hetz C, Hilfiker S, Hill JA, Hocking LJ, Hofman P, Hofmann TG, Höhfeld J, Holyoake TL, Hong MH, Hood DA, Hotamisligil GS, Houwerzijl EJ, Høyer-Hansen M, Hu B, Hu CA, Hu HM, Hua Y, Huang C, Huang J, Huang S, Huang WP, Huber TB, Huh WK, Hung TH, Hupp TR, Hur GM, Hurley JB, Hussain SN, Hussey PJ, Hwang JJ, Hwang S, Ichihara A, Ilkhanizadeh S, Inoki K, Into T, Iovane V, Iovanna JL, Ip NY, Isaka Y, Ishida H, Isidoro C, Isobe K, Iwasaki A, Izquierdo M, Izumi Y, Jaakkola PM, Jäättelä M, Jackson GR, Jackson WT, Janji B, Jendrach M, Jeon JH, Jeung EB, Jiang H, Jiang H, Jiang JX, Jiang M, Jiang Q, Jiang X, Jiang X, Jiménez A, Jin M, Jin S, Joe CO, Johansen T, Johnson DE, Johnson GV, Jones NL, Joseph B, Joseph SK, Joubert AM, Juhász G, Juillerat-Jeanneret L, Jung CH, Jung YK, Kaarniranta K, Kaasik A, Kabuta T, Kadowaki M, Kagedal K, Kamada Y, Kaminskyy VO, Kampinga HH, Kanamori H, Kang C, Kang KB, Kang KI, Kang R, Kang YA, Kanki T, Kanneganti TD, Kanno H, Kanthasamy AG, Kanthasamy A, Karantza V, Kaushal GP, Kaushik S, Kawazoe Y, Ke PY, Kehrl JH, Kelekar A, Kerkhoff C, Kessel DH, Khalil H, Kiel JA, Kiger AA, Kihara A, Kim DR, Kim DH, Kim DH, Kim EK, Kim HR, Kim JS, Kim JH, Kim JC, Kim JK, Kim PK, Kim SW, Kim YS, Kim Y, Kimchi A, Kimmelman AC, King JS, Kinsella TJ, Kirkin V, Kirshenbaum LA, Kitamoto K, Kitazato K, Klein L, Klimecki WT, Klucken J, Knecht E, Ko BC, Koch JC, Koga H, Koh JY, Koh YH, Koike M, Komatsu M, Kominami E, Kong HJ, Kong WJ, Korolchuk VI, Kotake Y, Koukourakis MI, Kouri Flores JB, Kovács AL, Kraft C, Krainc D, Krämer H, Kretz-Remy C, Krichevsky AM, Kroemer G, Krüger R, Krut O, Ktistakis NT, Kuan CY, Kucharczyk R, Kumar A, Kumar R, Kumar S, Kundu M, Kung HJ, Kurz T, Kwon HJ, La Spada AR, Lafont F, Lamark T, Landry J, Lane JD, Lapaquette P, Laporte JF, László L, Lavandero S, Lavoie JN, Layfield R, Lazo PA, Le W, Le Cam L, Ledbetter DJ, Lee AJ, Lee BW, Lee GM, Lee J, Lee JH, Lee M, Lee MS, Lee SH, Leeuwenburgh C, Legembre P, Legouis R, Lehmann M, Lei HY, Lei QY, Leib DA, Leiro J, Lemasters JJ, Lemoine A, Lesniak MS, Lev D, Levenson VV, Levine B, Levy E, Li F, Li JL, Li L, Li S, Li W, Li XJ, Li YB, Li YP, Liang C, Liang Q, Liao YF, Liberski PP, Lieberman A, Lim HJ, Lim KL, Lim K, Lin CF, Lin FC, Lin J, Lin JD, Lin K, Lin WW, Lin WC, Lin YL, Linden R, Lingor P, Lippincott-Schwartz J, Lisanti MP, Liton PB, Liu B, Liu CF, Liu K, Liu L, Liu QA, Liu W, Liu YC, Liu Y, Lockshin RA, Lok CN, Lonial S, Loos B, Lopez-Berestein G, López-Otín C, Lossi L, Lotze MT, Lőw P, Lu B, Lu B, Lu B, Lu Z, Luciano F, Lukacs NW, Lund AH, Lynch-Day MA, Ma Y, Macian F, MacKeigan JP, Macleod KF, Madeo F, Maiuri L, Maiuri MC, Malagoli D, Malicdan MC, Malorni W, Man N, Mandelkow EM, Manon S, Manov I, Mao K, Mao X, Mao Z, Marambaud P, Marazziti D, Marcel YL, Marchbank K, Marchetti P, Marciniak SJ, Marcondes M, Mardi M, Marfe G, Mariño G, Markaki M, Marten MR, Martin SJ, Martinand-Mari C, Martinet W, Martinez-Vicente M, Masini M, Matarrese P, Matsuo S, Matteoni R, Mayer A, Mazure NM, McConkey DJ, McConnell MJ, McDermott C, McDonald C, McInerney GM, McKenna SL, McLaughlin B, McLean PJ, McMaster CR, McQuibban GA, Meijer AJ, Meisler MH, Meléndez A, Melia TJ, Melino G, Mena MA, Menendez JA, Menna-Barreto RF, Menon MB, Menzies FM, Mercer CA, Merighi A, Merry DE, Meschini S, Meyer CG, Meyer TF, Miao CY, Miao JY, Michels PA, Michiels C, Mijaljica D, Milojkovic A, Minucci S, Miracco C, Miranti CK, Mitroulis I, Miyazawa K, Mizushima N, Mograbi B, Mohseni S, Molero X, Mollereau B, Mollinedo F, Momoi T, Monastyrska I, Monick MM, Monteiro MJ, Moore MN, Mora R, Moreau K, Moreira PI, Moriyasu Y, Moscat J, Mostowy S, Mottram JC, Motyl T, Moussa CE, Müller S, Muller S, Münger K, Münz C, Murphy LO, Murphy ME, Musarò A, Mysorekar I, Nagata E, Nagata K, Nahimana A, Nair U, Nakagawa T, Nakahira K, Nakano H, Nakatogawa H, Nanjundan M, Naqvi NI, Narendra DP, Narita M, Navarro M, Nawrocki ST, Nazarko TY, Nemchenko A, Netea MG, Neufeld TP, Ney PA, Nezis IP, Nguyen HP, Nie D, Nishino I, Nislow C, Nixon RA, Noda T, Noegel AA, Nogalska A, Noguchi S, Notterpek L, Novak I, Nozaki T, Nukina N, Nürnberger T, Nyfeler B, Obara K, Oberley TD, Oddo S, Ogawa M, Ohashi T, Okamoto K, Oleinick NL, Oliver FJ, Olsen LJ, Olsson S, Opota O, Osborne TF, Ostrander GK, Otsu K, Ou JH, Ouimet M, Overholtzer M, Ozpolat B, Paganetti P, Pagnini U, Pallet N, Palmer GE, Palumbo C, Pan T, Panaretakis T, Pandey UB, Papackova Z, Papassideri I, Paris I, Park J, Park OK, Parys JB, Parzych KR, Patschan S, Patterson C, Pattingre S, Pawelek JM, Peng J, Perlmutter DH, Perrotta I, Perry G, Pervaiz S, Peter M, Peters GJ, Petersen M, Petrovski G, Phang JM, Piacentini M, Pierre P, Pierrefite-Carle V, Pierron G, Pinkas-Kramarski R, Piras A, Piri N, Platanias LC, Pöggeler S, Poirot M, Poletti A, Poüs C, Pozuelo-Rubio M, Prætorius-Ibba M, Prasad A, Prescott M, Priault M, Produit-Zengaffinen N, Progulske-Fox A, Proikas-Cezanne T, Przedborski S, Przyklenk K, Puertollano R, Puyal J, Qian SB, Qin L, Qin ZH, Quaggin SE, Raben N, Rabinowich H, Rabkin SW, Rahman I, Rami A, Ramm G, Randall G, Randow F, Rao VA, Rathmell JC, Ravikumar B, Ray SK, Reed BH, Reed JC, Reggiori F, Régnier-Vigouroux A, Reichert AS, Reiners JJ Jr, Reiter RJ, Ren J, Revuelta JL, Rhodes CJ, Ritis K, Rizzo E, Robbins J, Roberge M, Roca H, Roccheri MC, Rocchi S, Rodemann HP, Rodríguez de Córdoba S, Rohrer B, Roninson IB, Rosen K, Rost-Roszkowska MM, Rouis M, Rouschop KM, Rovetta F, Rubin BP, Rubinsztein DC, Ruckdeschel K, Rucker EB 3rd, Rudich A, Rudolf E, Ruiz-Opazo N, Russo R, Rusten TE, Ryan KM, Ryter SW, Sabatini DM, Sadoshima J, Saha T, Saitoh T, Sakagami H, Sakai Y, Salekdeh GH, Salomoni P, Salvaterra PM, Salvesen G, Salvioli R, Sanchez AM, Sánchez-Alcázar JA, Sánchez-Prieto R, Sandri M, Sankar U, Sansanwal P, Santambrogio L, Saran S, Sarkar S, Sarwal M, Sasakawa C, Sasnauskiene A, Sass M, Sato K, Sato M, Schapira AH, Scharl M, Schätzl HM, Scheper W, Schiaffino S, Schneider C, Schneider ME, Schneider-Stock R, Schoenlein PV, Schorderet DF, Schüller C, Schwartz GK, Scorrano L, Sealy L, Seglen PO, Segura-Aguilar J, Seiliez I, Seleverstov O, Sell C, Seo JB, Separovic D, Setaluri V, Setoguchi T, Settembre C, Shacka JJ, Shanmugam M, Shapiro IM, Shaulian E, Shaw RJ, Shelhamer JH, Shen HM, Shen WC, Sheng ZH, Shi Y, Shibuya K, Shidoji Y, Shieh JJ, Shih CM, Shimada Y, Shimizu S, Shintani T, Shirihai OS, Shore GC, Sibirny AA, Sidhu SB, Sikorska B, Silva-Zacarin EC, Simmons A, Simon AK, Simon HU, Simone C, Simonsen A, Sinclair DA, Singh R, Sinha D, Sinicrope FA, Sirko A, Siu PM, Sivridis E, Skop V, Skulachev VP, Slack RS, Smaili SS, Smith DR, Soengas MS, Soldati T, Song X, Sood AK, Soong TW, Sotgia F, Spector SA, Spies CD, Springer W, Srinivasula SM, Stefanis L, Steffan JS, Stendel R, Stenmark H, Stephanou A, Stern ST, Sternberg C, Stork B, Strålfors P, Subauste CS, Sui X, Sulzer D, Sun J, Sun SY, Sun ZJ, Sung JJ, Suzuki K, Suzuki T, Swanson MS, Swanton C, Sweeney ST, Sy LK, Szabadkai G, Tabas I, Taegtmeyer H, Tafani M, Takács-Vellai K, Takano Y, Takegawa K, Takemura G, Takeshita F, Talbot NJ, Tan KS, Tanaka K, Tanaka K, Tang D, Tang D, Tanida I, Tannous BA, Tavernarakis N, Taylor GS, Taylor GA, Taylor JP, Terada LS, Terman A, Tettamanti G, Thevissen K, Thompson CB, Thorburn A, Thumm M, Tian F, Tian Y, Tocchini-Valentini G, Tolkovsky AM, Tomino Y, Tönges L, Tooze SA, Tournier C, Tower J, Towns R, Trajkovic V, Travassos LH, Tsai TF, Tschan MP, Tsubata T, Tsung A, Turk B, Turner LS, Tyagi SC, Uchiyama Y, Ueno T, Umekawa M, Umemiya-Shirafuji R, Unni VK, Vaccaro MI, Valente EM, Van den Berghe G, van der Klei IJ, van Doorn W, van Dyk LF, van Egmond M, van Grunsven LA, Vandenabeele P, Vandenberghe WP, Vanhorebeek I, Vaquero EC, Velasco G, Vellai T, Vicencio JM, Vierstra RD, Vila M, Vindis C, Viola G, Viscomi MT, Voitsekhovskaja OV, von Haefen C, Votruba M, Wada K, Wade-Martins R, Walker CL, Walsh CM, Walter J, Wan XB, Wang A, Wang C, Wang D, Wang F, Wang F, Wang G, Wang H, Wang HG, Wang HD, Wang J, Wang K, Wang M, Wang RC, Wang X, Wang X, Wang YJ, Wang Y, Wang Z, Wang ZC, Wang Z, Wansink DG, Ward DM, Watada H, Waters SL, Webster P, Wei L, Weihl CC, Weiss WA, Welford SM, Wen LP, Whitehouse CA, Whitton JL, Whitworth AJ, Wileman T, Wiley JW, Wilkinson S, Willbold D, Williams RL, Williamson PR, Wouters BG, Wu C, Wu DC, Wu WK, Wyttenbach A, Xavier RJ, Xi Z, Xia P, Xiao G, Xie Z, Xie Z, Xu DZ, Xu J, Xu L, Xu X, Yamamoto A, Yamamoto A, Yamashina S, Yamashita M, Yan X, Yanagida M, Yang DS, Yang E, Yang JM, Yang SY, Yang W, Yang WY, Yang Z, Yao MC, Yao TP, Yeganeh B, Yen WL, Yin JJ, Yin XM, Yoo OJ, Yoon G, Yoon SY, Yorimitsu T, Yoshikawa Y, Yoshimori T, Yoshimoto K, You HJ, Youle RJ, Younes A, Yu L, Yu L, Yu SW, Yu WH, Yuan ZM, Yue Z, Yun CH, Yuzaki M, Zabirnyk O, Silva-Zacarin E, Zacks D, Zacksenhaus E, Zaffaroni N, Zakeri Z, Zeh HJ 3rd, Zeitlin SO, Zhang H, Zhang HL, Zhang J, Zhang JP, Zhang L, Zhang L, Zhang MY, Zhang XD, Zhao M, Zhao YF, Zhao Y, Zhao ZJ, Zheng X, Zhivotovsky B, Zhong Q, Zhou CZ, Zhu C, Zhu WG, Zhu XF, Zhu X, Zhu Y, Zoladek T, Zong WX, Zorzano A, Zschocke J, Zuckerbraun B
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
on International journal of nanomedicine
by Ekkapongpisit M, Giovia A, Follo C, Caputo G, Isidoro C
Nanoparticles engineered to carry both a chemotherapeutic drug and a sensitive imaging probe are valid tools for early detection of cancer cells and to monitor the cytotoxic effects of anticancer treatment simultaneously. Here we report on the effect of size (10-30 nm versus 50 nm), type of material (mesoporous silica versus polystyrene), and surface charge functionalization (none, amine groups, or carboxyl groups) on biocompatibility, uptake, compartmentalization, and intracellular retention of fluorescently labeled nanoparticles in cultured human ovarian cancer cells. We also investigated the involvement of caveolae in the mechanism of uptake of nanoparticles.
on International journal of nanomedicine
by Ekkapongpisit M, Giovia A, Nicotra G, Ozzano M, Caputo G, Isidoro C
For a safe 'in vivo' biomedical utilization of nanoparticles, it is essential to assess not only biocompatibility, but also the potential to trigger unwanted side effects at both cellular and tissue levels. Mastocytes (cells having secretory granules containing cytokines, vasoactive amine, and proteases) play a pivotal role in the immune and inflammatory responses against exogenous toxins. Mastocytes are also recruited in the tumor stroma and are involved in tumor vascularization and growth.
on Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
by Castino R, Fiorentino I, Cagnin M, Giovia A, Isidoro C
In human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2), 200μM) rapidly (< 5 min) induced autophagy, as shown by processing and vacuolar relocation of light chain 3(LC3). Accumulation of autophagosome peaked at 30 min of H(2)O(2) exposure. The continuous presence of H(2)O(2) eventually (at > 60 min) caused autophagy-dependent annexin V-positive cell death. However, the cells exposed to H(2)O(2) for 30 min and then cultivated in fresh medium could recover and grow, despite ongoing autophagy. H(2)O(2) rapidly (5 min) triggered the formation of dichlorofluorescein-sensitive HO(·)-free radicals within mitochondria, whereas the mitochondria-associated oxidoradicals revealed by MitoSox (O(2)(·-)) became apparent after 30 min of exposure to H(2)O(2). 3-Methyladenine inhibited autophagy and cell death, but not the generation of HO(·). Genetic silencing of beclin-1 prevented bax- and annexin V-positive cell death induced by H(2)O(2), confirming the involvement of canonical autophagy in peroxide toxicity. The lysosomotropic iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO) prevented the mitochondrial generation of both HO(.) and O(2)(·-) and suppressed the induction of autophagy and of cell death by H(2)O(2). Upon exposure to H(2)O(2), Akt was intensely phosphorylated in the first 30 min, concurrently with mammalian target of rapamycin inactivation and autophagy, and it was dephosphorylated at 2 h, when > 50% of the cells were dead. DFO did not impede Akt phosphorylation, which therefore was independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation but inhibited Akt dephosphorylation. In conclusion, exogenous H(2)O(2) triggers two parallel independent pathways, one leading to autophagy and autophagy-dependent apoptosis, the other to transient Akt phosphorylation, and both are inhibited by DFO. The present work establishes HO(·) as the autophagy-inducing ROS and highlights the need for free lysosomal iron for its production within mitochondria in response to hydrogen peroxide.