Antonio Giuditta

Emeritus Professor of Physiology

Name Antonio
Surname Giuditta
Institution University of Naples – Federico II
Address Department of Biology, University of Naples Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126, Naples, Italy
Antonio Giuditta


  • Implantation of an EEG telemetric transmitter in the rat.

    Publication Date: 01/04/1996 on Italian journal of neurological sciences
    by Cotugno M, Mandile P, D'Angiolillo D, Montagnese P, Giuditta A

    We describe a method of implanting a telemetric transmitter of EEG signals in the laboratory rat. The transmitter is available commercially and may be implanted in a subcutaneous pocket prepared in the hindermost dorsal region of the animal. The two stainless steel electrodes connected to the transmitter are led to the cranium through a subcutaneous tunnel, and are fixed to the cranium bones. EEG signals are collected by a receiver placed under the cage; reception of the signals is improved by suitably placed antennae. The method allows recording of EEG data from a free-moving rat during the expression of behavioral tasks in a limited space.

  • Characterization of squid enolase mRNA: sequence analysis, tissue distribution, and axonal localization.

    Publication Date: 01/08/1995 on Neurochemical research
    by Chun JT, Gioio AE, Crispino M, Giuditta A, Kaplan BB

    Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme whose amino acid sequence is highly conserved across a wide range of animal species. In mammals, enolase is known to be a dimeric protein composed of distinct but closely related subunits: alpha (non-neuronal), beta (muscle-specific), and gamma (neuron-specific). However, little information is available on the primary sequence of enolase in invertebrates. Here we report the isolation of two overlapping cDNA clones and the putative primary structure of the enzyme from the squid (Loligo pealii) nervous system. The composite sequence of those cDNA clones is 1575 bp and contains the entire coding region (1302 bp), as well as 66 and 207 bp of 5' and 3' untranslated sequence, respectively. Cross-species comparison of enolase primary structure reveals that squid enolase shares over 70% sequence identity to vertebrate forms of the enzyme. The greatest degree of sequence similarity was manifest to the alpha isoform of the human homologue. Results of Northern analysis revealed a single 1.6 kb mRNA species, the relative abundance of which differs approximately 10-fold between various tissues. Interestingly, evidence derived from in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction experiments indicate that the mRNA encoding enolase is present in the squid giant axon.

  • The sequential hypothesis of the function of sleep.

    Publication Date: 01/07/1995 on Behavioural brain research
    by Giuditta A, Ambrosini MV, Montagnese P, Mandile P, Cotugno M, Grassi Zucconi G, Vescia S

    In addition to modulatory roles concerning bodily functions, sleep is assumed to play a main processing role with regard to newly acquired neural information. Elaboration of memory traces acquired during the waking period is assumed to require two sequential steps taking place during slow wave sleep (SWS) and eventually during paradoxical sleep (PS). This view is suggested by several considerations, not the least of which concerns the natural sequence of appearance of SWS and PS in the adult animal. While the involvement of PS in memory processing is well documented, the involvement of SWS is supported by the results of baseline and post-trial EEG analyses carried out in rats trained for a two-way active avoidance task or a spatial habituation task. Together with control analyses, these data indicate that the marked increase in the average duration of post-trial SWS episodes does not reflect the outcome of non-specific contingent factors, such as sleep loss or stress, but is related to memory processing events. Several considerations have furthermore led to the proposal that, during SWS, after a preliminary selection step, the first processing operation consists in the weakening of non-adaptative memory traces. The remaining memory traces would then be stored again under a better configuration during the ensuing PS episode. This view is in agreement with several relevant features of sleep, including the EEG waveforms prevailing during SWS and PS, as well as the ontogenetic sequence of appearance of SWS and PS. Some theoretical considerations on the role of sleep are also in agreement with the sequential hypothesis. More recent data indicate that the learning capacity of rats is correlated with several baseline EEG features of sleep and wakefulness. They include the average duration of PS episodes and of SWS episodes followed by wakefulness (longer in fast learning rats), and the waking EEG power spectrum of fast learning rats whose output is more balanced in the frequency range below 10 Hz than in slow learning and in non-learning rats. Additional EEG data suggest that fast learning rats may accomplish 'on line' processing of newly acquired information according to a sequence of events not dissimilar from the one proposed by the sequential hypothesis.

  • Immediate early genes and brain DNA remodeling in the Naples high- and low-excitability rat lines following exposure to a spatial novelty.

    Publication Date: 01/01/1995 on Brain research bulletin
    by Papa M, Pellicano MP, Cerbone A, Lamberti-D'Mello C, Menna T, Buono C, Giuditta A, Welzl H, Sadile AG

    The aim of these studies was to map the neural consequences of exposure to a spatial novelty on the expression of immediate gene (IEG) and on unscheduled brain DNA synthesis (UBDS) in two genetic models of altered activity and hippocampal functions, i.e., the Naples High- (NHE) and Low-excitability (NLE) rats. Adult male rats of NLE and NHE lines, and of a random-bred stock (NRB) were tested in a Làt-maze, and corner crossings, rearings, and fecal boli were counted during two 10-min tests 24 h apart. For IEG expression, rats were exposed to a Làt-maze with nonexposed or repeatedly exposed rats used as controls, and were sacrificed at different time intervals thereafter. For UBDS, rats were sacrificed immediately after the first or the second exposure o a Làt-maze. IEG expression was measured by immunocytochemistry for the FOS and JUN proteins. NRB rats exposed for the first time to the maze showed extensive FOS and JUN positive cells in the reticular formation, the granular and pyramidal neurons of hippocampus, the amygdaloid nuclei, all layers of somatosensory cortex, and the granule cells of the cerebellar cortex. The positivity, stronger in rats exposed for the first time, was present between 2 and 6 h and was prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist CPP (5 mg/kg). The positivity was very low in NHE rats, and it was stronger in NLE compared to NRB rats. UBDS was measured in ex vivo homogenates of brain areas by the incorporation into DNA of 3H-[methyl]-thymidine given intraventricularly 15 min before test trial 1 or 2 (pulse of 0.5 h).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  • Protein synthesis in nerve endings from squid brain: modulation by calcium ions.

    Publication Date: 01/10/1994 on The Biological bulletin
    by Benech J, Crispino M, Chun JT, Kaplan BB, Giuditta A
    DOI: 10.1086/BBLv187n2p269
  • Kinesin mRNA is present in the squid giant axon.

    Publication Date: 01/07/1994 on Journal of neurochemistry
    by Gioio AE, Chun JT, Crispino M, Capano CP, Giuditta A, Kaplan BB

    Recently, we reported the construction of a cDNA library encoding a heterogeneous population of polyadenylated mRNAs present in the squid giant axon. The nucleic acid sequencing of several randomly selected clones led to the identification of cDNAs encoding beta-actin and beta-tubulin, two relatively abundant axonal mRNA species. To continue characterization of this unique mRNA population, the axonal cDNA library was screened with a cDNA probe encoding the carboxy terminus of the squid kinesin heavy chain. The sequencing of several positive clones unambiguously identified axonal kinesin cDNA clones. The axonal localization of kinesin mRNA was subsequently verified by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In addition, the presence of kinesin RNA sequences in the axoplasmic polyribosome fraction was demonstrated using PCR methodology. In contrast to these findings, mRNA encoding the squid sodium channel was not detected in axoplasmic RNA, although these sequences were relatively abundant in the giant fiber lobe. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that kinesin mRNA is a component of a select group of mRNAs present in the squid giant axon, and suggest that kinesin may be synthesized locally in this model invertebrate motor neuron.

  • c-fos spontaneous expression during wakefulness is reversed during sleep in neuronal subsets of the rat cortex.

    Publication Date: 01/01/1994 on Journal of physiology, Paris
    by Grassi-Zucconi G, Giuditta A, Mandile P, Chen S, Vescia S, Bentivoglio M
  • Neurofilament proteins are synthesized in nerve endings from squid brain.

    Publication Date: 01/09/1993 on Journal of neurochemistry
    by Crispino M, Capano CP, Kaplan BB, Giuditta A

    It is generally believed that the proteins of the nerve endings are synthesized on perikaryal polysomes and are eventually delivered to the presynaptic domain by axoplasmic flow. At variance with this view, we have reported previously that a synaptosomal fraction from squid brain actively synthesizes proteins whose electrophoretic profile differs substantially from that of the proteins made in nerve cell bodies, axons, or glial cells, i.e., by the possible contaminants of the synaptosomal fraction. Using western analyses and immunoabsorption methods, we report now that (a) the translation products of the squid synaptosomal fraction include neurofilament (NF) proteins and (b) the electrophoretic pattern of the synaptosomal newly synthesized NF proteins is drastically different from that of the NF proteins synthesized by nerve cell bodies. The latter results exclude the possibility that NF proteins synthesized by the synaptosomal fraction originate in fragments of nerve cell bodies possibly contaminating the synaptosomal fraction. They rather indicate that in squid brain, nerve terminals synthesize NF proteins.

  • Protein synthesis in a synaptosomal fraction from squid brain.

    Publication Date: 01/08/1993 on Molecular and cellular neurosciences
    by Crispino M, Castigli E, Perrone Capano C, Martin R, Menichini E, Kaplan BB, Giuditta A
    DOI: 10.1006/mcne.1993.1046

    A synaptosomal fraction from squid brain containing a large proportion of well-presarved nerve terminals displays a high rate of [(35)S]methionine incorporation into protein. The reaction is dependent on time and protein concentration, is strongly inhibited by hypo-osmotic shock and cycloheximide, and is not affected by RNase. Chloramphenicol, an inhibitor of mitochondrial protein synthesis, partially inhibits the reaction. The ionic composition of the incubation medium markedly modulates the rate of [(35)S]methionine incorporation. Na(+) and K(+) ions are required for maximal activity, while complete inhibition is achieved by addition of the calcium ionophore A23187 and, to a substantial extent, by tetraethylammonium, ouabain, and high concentrations K(+). A thermostable inhibitor of synaptosomal protein synthesis is also present in the soluble fraction of squid brain. Using sucrose density gradient sedimentation procedures, cytoplasmic polysomes associated with nascent radiolabeled peptide chains have been identified in the synaptosomal preparation. Newly synthesized synaptosomal proteins are largely associated with a readily sedimented particulate fraction and may be resolved by gel electrophoresis into more than 30 discrete bands ranging in size from about 14 to 200 kDa. The electrophoretic pattern of the newly synthesized synaptosomal proteins is significantly different from the corresponding patterns displayed by the giant axon's axoplasm and by glial and nerve cell bodies (in the stellate nerve and ganglion, respectively). On the whole, these observations suggest that the nerve endings from squid brain are capable of protein synthesis.

  • Long-term habituation to spatial novelty modifies posttrial synchronized sleep in rats.

    Publication Date: 01/01/1993 on Brain research bulletin
    by Montagnese P, Mandile P, Vescia S, Sadile AG, Giuditta A

    To assess the role of posttrial synchronized sleep in the processing of a nonassociative task, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with chronically implanted cortical electrodes for EEG recording were exposed to a Làt-maze, and horizontal (HA; corner crossing) and vertical (VA; rearings) activities were monitored during two 10-min test trials made at a 3-h (experiment 1) or 24-h (experiment 2) interval. EEG conventional recording was taken during 3 h under baseline conditions (day 1), and following exposure to the maze (day 2), and analyzed as to the amount (a), number (n), and mean duration (d) of synchronized sleep (SS) episodes followed by wakefulness (SS-->W) or by paradoxical sleep (SS-->PS). In both experiments there was a significant intertrial decrement (long-term habituation: LTH) for horizontal activity (LTH-HA), vertical activity (LTH-VA), and emotionality (LTH-E). In experiment 1, in comparison to baseline values, the posttrial SS-->PS(a) increased, mainly for the appearance of SS-->PS episodes in the 1st h. SS-->W(a) also increased in the first h. Correlative analyses among behavioral and sleep parameters showed that SS-->PS(n) and (d) covaried positively with LTH-HA relative to the entire test, and with LTH-VA relative to the second part of the test in the third h. Negative correlations were present between SS-->PS(n) and (d), and LTH-E. In experiment 2, exposed rats showed a lower SS-->PS(n) in the first hour and an increased SS-->PS(d) in the second hour. No change was observed as to SS-->W episodes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)